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Investigating effect of mutation on structure and function of G6PD enzyme: a comparative molecular dynamics simulation study

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Article numbere12984
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>29/03/2022
Number of pages32
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Several natural mutants of the human G6PD enzyme exist and have been reported. Because the enzymatic activities of many mutants are different from that of the wildtype, the genetic polymorphism of G6PD plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids via ribulose-5-phosphate and formation of reduced NADP in response to oxidative stress. G6PD mutations leading to its deficiency result in the neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia in human. Herein, we demonstrate the molecular dynamics simulations of the wildtype G6PD and its three mutants to monitor the effect of mutations on dynamics and stability of the protein. These mutants are Chatham (A335T), Nashville (R393H), Alhambra (V394L), among which R393H and V394L lie closer to binding site of structural NADP+. MD analysis including RMSD, RMSF and protein secondary structure revealed that decrease in the stability of mutants is key factor for loss of their activity. The results demonstrated that mutations in the G6PD sequence resulted in altered structural stability and hence functional changes in enzymes. Also, the binding site, of structural NADP+, which is far away from the catalytic site plays an important role in protein stability and folding. Mutation at this site causes changes in structural stability and hence functional deviations in enzyme structure reflecting the importance of structural NADP+ binding site. The calculation of binding free energy by post processing end state method of Molecular Mechanics Poisson Boltzmann SurfaceArea (MM-PBSA) has inferred that ligand binding in wildtype is favorable as compared to mutants which represent destabilised protein structure due to mutation that in turn may hinder the normal physiological function. Exploring individual components of free energy revealed that the van der Waals energy component representing non-polar/hydrophobic energy contribution act as a dominant factor in case of ligand binding. Our study also provides an insight in identifying the key inhibitory site in G6PD and its mutants which can be exploited to use them as a target for developing new inhibitors in rational drug design.