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Landmarks in wayfinding: a review of the existing literature

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>15/03/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Cognitive Processing
Volume383
Number of pages47
Pages (from-to)153-199
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date8/03/21
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Landmarks are accepted as one of the vital elements in both virtual and real environments during wayfinding tasks. This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on the selection of landmarks in wayfinding mostly in large-scale urban environments and outdoors by discussing two main aspects of landmarks: visibility and salience. Environments and layouts used in previous studies, different tasks given to people and the main findings are explained and compared. Summary tables are created from these findings. The review concludes that there is mostly a consensus on the selection of landmarks, when considering their location. Accordingly, landmarks on route and also at decision points (with a turn) are more effective during wayfinding tasks. However, visibility of landmarks as well as visual and cognitive saliency need to be further investigated using different environments, tasks or different levels of familiarity with environments.

Bibliographic note

The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s00220-021-03970-x