Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.
View graph of relations

Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Published

Standard

Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters. / Smith, E. J.; Davison, William; Hamilton-Taylor, John.

In: Water Research, Vol. 36, No. 5, 03.2002, p. 1286-1296.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

APA

Vancouver

Author

Smith, E. J. ; Davison, William ; Hamilton-Taylor, John. / Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters. In: Water Research. 2002 ; Vol. 36, No. 5. pp. 1286-1296.

Bibtex

@article{75e6593713a944599f71eb80f0a27e0e,
title = "Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.",
abstract = "Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.",
keywords = "Synthetic, Freshwaters, Soft, Hard, Acid",
author = "Smith, {E. J.} and William Davison and John Hamilton-Taylor",
year = "2002",
month = mar,
doi = "10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00341-4",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "1286--1296",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "0043-1354",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

AU - Smith, E. J.

AU - Davison, William

AU - Hamilton-Taylor, John

PY - 2002/3

Y1 - 2002/3

N2 - Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

AB - Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

KW - Synthetic

KW - Freshwaters

KW - Soft

KW - Hard

KW - Acid

U2 - 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00341-4

DO - 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00341-4

M3 - Journal article

VL - 36

SP - 1286

EP - 1296

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

IS - 5

ER -