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    Rights statement: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Intelligence History on 07/04/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172

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Military governments, the ISI and political hybridity in contemporary Pakistan: from independence to Musharraf

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Military governments, the ISI and political hybridity in contemporary Pakistan : from independence to Musharraf. / Mukherjee, Kunal.

In: Journal of Intelligence History, Vol. 16, No. 2, 07.2017, p. 172-193.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

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@article{7cd3a3c2d6e04157875f422a7d84cd2f,
title = "Military governments, the ISI and political hybridity in contemporary Pakistan: from independence to Musharraf",
abstract = "While most analysts have tended to view Pakistan{\textquoteright}s domestic politics and political system asauthoritarian and label it as a military dictatorship, this article highlights the concept of political {\textquoteleft}hybridity{\textquoteright}.Emphasising the potential for more democratic elements from within Pakistani society in relation to politics, the article traces interactions that have taken place in the interface between democratic forces and authoritarian/military elements. Using the concept of political hybridity and {\textquoteleft}hybrid government{\textquoteright} brings to light the inherent complexities and potential contradictions of interactions between democratic forces and authoritarian elements in Pakistan, from the Ayub era soon after independence to the more recent times of Musharraf. ",
keywords = "Afghanistan, democracy, governance, hybridity, Kashmir, military, Pakistan, political Islam, SAARC, ISI/Inter-Services-Intelligence",
author = "Kunal Mukherjee",
note = "This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Intelligence History on 07/04/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172",
year = "2017",
month = jul,
doi = "10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "172--193",
journal = "Journal of Intelligence History",
issn = "1616-1262",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Military governments, the ISI and political hybridity in contemporary Pakistan

T2 - from independence to Musharraf

AU - Mukherjee, Kunal

N1 - This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Intelligence History on 07/04/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172

PY - 2017/7

Y1 - 2017/7

N2 - While most analysts have tended to view Pakistan’s domestic politics and political system asauthoritarian and label it as a military dictatorship, this article highlights the concept of political ‘hybridity’.Emphasising the potential for more democratic elements from within Pakistani society in relation to politics, the article traces interactions that have taken place in the interface between democratic forces and authoritarian/military elements. Using the concept of political hybridity and ‘hybrid government’ brings to light the inherent complexities and potential contradictions of interactions between democratic forces and authoritarian elements in Pakistan, from the Ayub era soon after independence to the more recent times of Musharraf.

AB - While most analysts have tended to view Pakistan’s domestic politics and political system asauthoritarian and label it as a military dictatorship, this article highlights the concept of political ‘hybridity’.Emphasising the potential for more democratic elements from within Pakistani society in relation to politics, the article traces interactions that have taken place in the interface between democratic forces and authoritarian/military elements. Using the concept of political hybridity and ‘hybrid government’ brings to light the inherent complexities and potential contradictions of interactions between democratic forces and authoritarian elements in Pakistan, from the Ayub era soon after independence to the more recent times of Musharraf.

KW - Afghanistan

KW - democracy

KW - governance

KW - hybridity

KW - Kashmir

KW - military

KW - Pakistan

KW - political Islam

KW - SAARC

KW - ISI/Inter-Services-Intelligence

U2 - 10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172

DO - 10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172

M3 - Journal article

VL - 16

SP - 172

EP - 193

JO - Journal of Intelligence History

JF - Journal of Intelligence History

SN - 1616-1262

IS - 2

ER -