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Petrology, geochemistry and low-temperature alteration of extrusive lavas and pyroclastic rocks of the Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania.

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Petrology, geochemistry and low-temperature alteration of extrusive lavas and pyroclastic rocks of the Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania. / Willcox, Alistair; Buisman, Iris; Sparks, Steve et al.

In: Chemical Geology, Vol. 405, 05.06.2015, p. 82-101.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

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Willcox A, Buisman I, Sparks S, Brown R, Manya S, Schumacher JC et al. Petrology, geochemistry and low-temperature alteration of extrusive lavas and pyroclastic rocks of the Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania. Chemical Geology. 2015 Jun 5;405:82-101. Epub 2015 Apr 28. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.04.012

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Willcox, Alistair ; Buisman, Iris ; Sparks, Steve et al. / Petrology, geochemistry and low-temperature alteration of extrusive lavas and pyroclastic rocks of the Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania. In: Chemical Geology. 2015 ; Vol. 405. pp. 82-101.

Bibtex

@article{aad9cd1f87da4b9db27e7f9795b3ab05,
title = "Petrology, geochemistry and low-temperature alteration of extrusive lavas and pyroclastic rocks of the Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania.",
abstract = "Geochemical data are presented for the kimberlitic Holocene Igwisi Hills volcanoes (IHV), Tanzania, which preserve extra-crater lavas and pyroclastic rocks. Their young age and exceptional preservation enable investigation of kimberlite magma compositions and alteration pathways of kimberlites. The IHV lavas have a variable matrix assemblage dominated by calcite, olivine and a serpentine-like mineral (termed serpentine-X). Minor primary groundmass phases include apatite, phlogopite, monticellite, perovskite and spinel representing late-stage crystalisation. Secondary phases include hydrogarnet, a mixed-layer chlorite-vermiculite-montmorrilonite, minor brucite and low-temperature oxides and clays such as goethite and jamborite. The matrix of pyroclastic rocks is dominated by calcite with fewer groundmass phases. The parental magmas are inferred to have had ~ 21 wt % SiO2, ~ 22 wt % CaO, ~ 23 wt % MgO and Mg# ~ 70. The IHV are classified as calcite kimberlites. The total volatile concentrations of the primary melt are ~ 14 wt %, which predominantly consists of CO2 although the H2O content is also high. Whole-rock geochemical analyses indicate minor crustal contamination, low-temperature alteration and weathering. Pervasive serpentinisation in both lavas and pyroclastic rocks results from low-temperature alteration induced by the circulation of meteoric waters during cooling. Serpentine-X is potentially a new mineral and is richer in Al2O3 and FeO and poorer in SiO2 than published analyses of serpentine minerals. These compositions are attributed to a 1:2 mixture of serpentine and hydrotalcite. We propose that serpentine-X has replaced a reactive, late stage residual silicate glass, the existence of which helps explain the presence of vesicular scoria (similar to glassy basaltic pyroclasts) and viscous kimberlite lavas.",
keywords = "Extrusive kimberlite, Igwisi Hills, serpentine, geochemistry, petrology",
author = "Alistair Willcox and Iris Buisman and Steve Sparks and Richard Brown and S. Manya and Schumacher, {J. C.} and Hugh Tuffen",
year = "2015",
month = jun,
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.04.012",
language = "English",
volume = "405",
pages = "82--101",
journal = "Chemical Geology",
issn = "0009-2541",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Petrology, geochemistry and low-temperature alteration of extrusive lavas and pyroclastic rocks of the Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania.

AU - Willcox, Alistair

AU - Buisman, Iris

AU - Sparks, Steve

AU - Brown, Richard

AU - Manya, S.

AU - Schumacher, J. C.

AU - Tuffen, Hugh

PY - 2015/6/5

Y1 - 2015/6/5

N2 - Geochemical data are presented for the kimberlitic Holocene Igwisi Hills volcanoes (IHV), Tanzania, which preserve extra-crater lavas and pyroclastic rocks. Their young age and exceptional preservation enable investigation of kimberlite magma compositions and alteration pathways of kimberlites. The IHV lavas have a variable matrix assemblage dominated by calcite, olivine and a serpentine-like mineral (termed serpentine-X). Minor primary groundmass phases include apatite, phlogopite, monticellite, perovskite and spinel representing late-stage crystalisation. Secondary phases include hydrogarnet, a mixed-layer chlorite-vermiculite-montmorrilonite, minor brucite and low-temperature oxides and clays such as goethite and jamborite. The matrix of pyroclastic rocks is dominated by calcite with fewer groundmass phases. The parental magmas are inferred to have had ~ 21 wt % SiO2, ~ 22 wt % CaO, ~ 23 wt % MgO and Mg# ~ 70. The IHV are classified as calcite kimberlites. The total volatile concentrations of the primary melt are ~ 14 wt %, which predominantly consists of CO2 although the H2O content is also high. Whole-rock geochemical analyses indicate minor crustal contamination, low-temperature alteration and weathering. Pervasive serpentinisation in both lavas and pyroclastic rocks results from low-temperature alteration induced by the circulation of meteoric waters during cooling. Serpentine-X is potentially a new mineral and is richer in Al2O3 and FeO and poorer in SiO2 than published analyses of serpentine minerals. These compositions are attributed to a 1:2 mixture of serpentine and hydrotalcite. We propose that serpentine-X has replaced a reactive, late stage residual silicate glass, the existence of which helps explain the presence of vesicular scoria (similar to glassy basaltic pyroclasts) and viscous kimberlite lavas.

AB - Geochemical data are presented for the kimberlitic Holocene Igwisi Hills volcanoes (IHV), Tanzania, which preserve extra-crater lavas and pyroclastic rocks. Their young age and exceptional preservation enable investigation of kimberlite magma compositions and alteration pathways of kimberlites. The IHV lavas have a variable matrix assemblage dominated by calcite, olivine and a serpentine-like mineral (termed serpentine-X). Minor primary groundmass phases include apatite, phlogopite, monticellite, perovskite and spinel representing late-stage crystalisation. Secondary phases include hydrogarnet, a mixed-layer chlorite-vermiculite-montmorrilonite, minor brucite and low-temperature oxides and clays such as goethite and jamborite. The matrix of pyroclastic rocks is dominated by calcite with fewer groundmass phases. The parental magmas are inferred to have had ~ 21 wt % SiO2, ~ 22 wt % CaO, ~ 23 wt % MgO and Mg# ~ 70. The IHV are classified as calcite kimberlites. The total volatile concentrations of the primary melt are ~ 14 wt %, which predominantly consists of CO2 although the H2O content is also high. Whole-rock geochemical analyses indicate minor crustal contamination, low-temperature alteration and weathering. Pervasive serpentinisation in both lavas and pyroclastic rocks results from low-temperature alteration induced by the circulation of meteoric waters during cooling. Serpentine-X is potentially a new mineral and is richer in Al2O3 and FeO and poorer in SiO2 than published analyses of serpentine minerals. These compositions are attributed to a 1:2 mixture of serpentine and hydrotalcite. We propose that serpentine-X has replaced a reactive, late stage residual silicate glass, the existence of which helps explain the presence of vesicular scoria (similar to glassy basaltic pyroclasts) and viscous kimberlite lavas.

KW - Extrusive kimberlite

KW - Igwisi Hills

KW - serpentine

KW - geochemistry

KW - petrology

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.04.012

DO - 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.04.012

M3 - Journal article

VL - 405

SP - 82

EP - 101

JO - Chemical Geology

JF - Chemical Geology

SN - 0009-2541

ER -