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Pharmacies in informal settlements: a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries

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Pharmacies in informal settlements : a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries. / Bakibinga, P.; Kabaria, C.; Kasiira, Z.; Kibe, P.; Kyobutungi, C.; Mbaya, N.; Mberu, B.; Mohammed, S.; Njeri, A.; Azam, I.; Iqbal, R.; Nazish, A.; Rizvi, N.; Shifat Ahmed, S.A.K.; Choudhury, N.; Alam, O.; Khan, A.Z.; Rahman, O.; Yusuf, R.; Odubanjo, D.; Ayobola, M.; Fayehun, O.; Omigbodun, A.; Osuh, M.; Owoaje, E.; Taiwo, O.; Lilford, R.J.; Sartori, J.; Watson, S.I.; Diggle, P.J.; Aujla, N.; Chen, Y.-F.; Gill, P.; Griffiths, F.; Harris, B.; Madan, J.; Muir, H.; Oyebode, O.; Pitidis, V.; de Albuquerque, J.P.; Smith, S.; Taylor, C.; Ulbrich, P.; Uthman, O.A.; Wilson, R.; Yeboah, G.; Watson, S.I.; Collaborative, Improving Health in Slums.

In: BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, 945, 09.09.2021.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Bakibinga, P, Kabaria, C, Kasiira, Z, Kibe, P, Kyobutungi, C, Mbaya, N, Mberu, B, Mohammed, S, Njeri, A, Azam, I, Iqbal, R, Nazish, A, Rizvi, N, Shifat Ahmed, SAK, Choudhury, N, Alam, O, Khan, AZ, Rahman, O, Yusuf, R, Odubanjo, D, Ayobola, M, Fayehun, O, Omigbodun, A, Osuh, M, Owoaje, E, Taiwo, O, Lilford, RJ, Sartori, J, Watson, SI, Diggle, PJ, Aujla, N, Chen, Y-F, Gill, P, Griffiths, F, Harris, B, Madan, J, Muir, H, Oyebode, O, Pitidis, V, de Albuquerque, JP, Smith, S, Taylor, C, Ulbrich, P, Uthman, OA, Wilson, R, Yeboah, G, Watson, SI & Collaborative, IHIS 2021, 'Pharmacies in informal settlements: a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries', BMC Health Services Research, vol. 21, no. 1, 945. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06937-9

APA

Bakibinga, P., Kabaria, C., Kasiira, Z., Kibe, P., Kyobutungi, C., Mbaya, N., Mberu, B., Mohammed, S., Njeri, A., Azam, I., Iqbal, R., Nazish, A., Rizvi, N., Shifat Ahmed, S. A. K., Choudhury, N., Alam, O., Khan, A. Z., Rahman, O., Yusuf, R., ... Collaborative, I. H. I. S. (2021). Pharmacies in informal settlements: a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries. BMC Health Services Research, 21(1), [945]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06937-9

Vancouver

Bakibinga P, Kabaria C, Kasiira Z, Kibe P, Kyobutungi C, Mbaya N et al. Pharmacies in informal settlements: a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries. BMC Health Services Research. 2021 Sep 9;21(1). 945. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06937-9

Author

Bakibinga, P. ; Kabaria, C. ; Kasiira, Z. ; Kibe, P. ; Kyobutungi, C. ; Mbaya, N. ; Mberu, B. ; Mohammed, S. ; Njeri, A. ; Azam, I. ; Iqbal, R. ; Nazish, A. ; Rizvi, N. ; Shifat Ahmed, S.A.K. ; Choudhury, N. ; Alam, O. ; Khan, A.Z. ; Rahman, O. ; Yusuf, R. ; Odubanjo, D. ; Ayobola, M. ; Fayehun, O. ; Omigbodun, A. ; Osuh, M. ; Owoaje, E. ; Taiwo, O. ; Lilford, R.J. ; Sartori, J. ; Watson, S.I. ; Diggle, P.J. ; Aujla, N. ; Chen, Y.-F. ; Gill, P. ; Griffiths, F. ; Harris, B. ; Madan, J. ; Muir, H. ; Oyebode, O. ; Pitidis, V. ; de Albuquerque, J.P. ; Smith, S. ; Taylor, C. ; Ulbrich, P. ; Uthman, O.A. ; Wilson, R. ; Yeboah, G. ; Watson, S.I. ; Collaborative, Improving Health in Slums. / Pharmacies in informal settlements : a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries. In: BMC Health Services Research. 2021 ; Vol. 21, No. 1.

Bibtex

@article{507284ccb4444cb8ac2fe66438ffd40a,
title = "Pharmacies in informal settlements: a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries",
abstract = "Background: Slums or informal settlements characterize most large cities in LMIC. Previous evidence suggests pharmacies may be the most frequently used source of primary care in LMICs but that pharmacy services are of variable quality. However, evidence on pharmacy use and availability is very limited for slum populations. Methods: We conducted household, individual, and healthcare provider surveys and qualitative observations on pharmacies and pharmacy use in seven slum sites in four countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). All pharmacies and up to 1200 households in each site were sampled. Adults and children were surveyed about their use of healthcare services and pharmacies were observed and their services, equipment, and stock documented. Results: We completed 7692 household and 7451 individual adults, 2633 individual child surveys, and 157 surveys of pharmacies located within the seven sites. Visit rates to pharmacies and drug sellers varied from 0.1 (Nigeria) to 3.0 (Bangladesh) visits per person-year, almost all of which were for new conditions. We found highly variable conditions in what constituted a “pharmacy” across the sites and most pharmacies did not employ a qualified pharmacist. Analgesics and antibiotics were widely available but other categories of medications, particularly those for chronic illness were often not available anywhere. The majority of pharmacies lacked basic equipment such as a thermometer and weighing scales. Conclusions: Pharmacies are locally and widely available to residents of slums. However, the conditions of the facilities and availability of medicines were poor and prices relatively high. Pharmacies may represent a large untapped resource to improving access to primary care for the urban poor. ",
keywords = "Healthcare access, LMICs, Pharmacies, Slums, Welfare",
author = "P. Bakibinga and C. Kabaria and Z. Kasiira and P. Kibe and C. Kyobutungi and N. Mbaya and B. Mberu and S. Mohammed and A. Njeri and I. Azam and R. Iqbal and A. Nazish and N. Rizvi and {Shifat Ahmed}, S.A.K. and N. Choudhury and O. Alam and A.Z. Khan and O. Rahman and R. Yusuf and D. Odubanjo and M. Ayobola and O. Fayehun and A. Omigbodun and M. Osuh and E. Owoaje and O. Taiwo and R.J. Lilford and J. Sartori and S.I. Watson and P.J. Diggle and N. Aujla and Y.-F. Chen and P. Gill and F. Griffiths and B. Harris and J. Madan and H. Muir and O. Oyebode and V. Pitidis and {de Albuquerque}, J.P. and S. Smith and C. Taylor and P. Ulbrich and O.A. Uthman and R. Wilson and G. Yeboah and S.I. Watson and Collaborative, {Improving Health in Slums}",
year = "2021",
month = sep,
day = "9",
doi = "10.1186/s12913-021-06937-9",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
journal = "BMC Health Services Research",
issn = "1472-6963",
publisher = "BMC",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacies in informal settlements

T2 - a retrospective, cross-sectional household and health facility survey in four countries

AU - Bakibinga, P.

AU - Kabaria, C.

AU - Kasiira, Z.

AU - Kibe, P.

AU - Kyobutungi, C.

AU - Mbaya, N.

AU - Mberu, B.

AU - Mohammed, S.

AU - Njeri, A.

AU - Azam, I.

AU - Iqbal, R.

AU - Nazish, A.

AU - Rizvi, N.

AU - Shifat Ahmed, S.A.K.

AU - Choudhury, N.

AU - Alam, O.

AU - Khan, A.Z.

AU - Rahman, O.

AU - Yusuf, R.

AU - Odubanjo, D.

AU - Ayobola, M.

AU - Fayehun, O.

AU - Omigbodun, A.

AU - Osuh, M.

AU - Owoaje, E.

AU - Taiwo, O.

AU - Lilford, R.J.

AU - Sartori, J.

AU - Watson, S.I.

AU - Diggle, P.J.

AU - Aujla, N.

AU - Chen, Y.-F.

AU - Gill, P.

AU - Griffiths, F.

AU - Harris, B.

AU - Madan, J.

AU - Muir, H.

AU - Oyebode, O.

AU - Pitidis, V.

AU - de Albuquerque, J.P.

AU - Smith, S.

AU - Taylor, C.

AU - Ulbrich, P.

AU - Uthman, O.A.

AU - Wilson, R.

AU - Yeboah, G.

AU - Watson, S.I.

AU - Collaborative, Improving Health in Slums

PY - 2021/9/9

Y1 - 2021/9/9

N2 - Background: Slums or informal settlements characterize most large cities in LMIC. Previous evidence suggests pharmacies may be the most frequently used source of primary care in LMICs but that pharmacy services are of variable quality. However, evidence on pharmacy use and availability is very limited for slum populations. Methods: We conducted household, individual, and healthcare provider surveys and qualitative observations on pharmacies and pharmacy use in seven slum sites in four countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). All pharmacies and up to 1200 households in each site were sampled. Adults and children were surveyed about their use of healthcare services and pharmacies were observed and their services, equipment, and stock documented. Results: We completed 7692 household and 7451 individual adults, 2633 individual child surveys, and 157 surveys of pharmacies located within the seven sites. Visit rates to pharmacies and drug sellers varied from 0.1 (Nigeria) to 3.0 (Bangladesh) visits per person-year, almost all of which were for new conditions. We found highly variable conditions in what constituted a “pharmacy” across the sites and most pharmacies did not employ a qualified pharmacist. Analgesics and antibiotics were widely available but other categories of medications, particularly those for chronic illness were often not available anywhere. The majority of pharmacies lacked basic equipment such as a thermometer and weighing scales. Conclusions: Pharmacies are locally and widely available to residents of slums. However, the conditions of the facilities and availability of medicines were poor and prices relatively high. Pharmacies may represent a large untapped resource to improving access to primary care for the urban poor.

AB - Background: Slums or informal settlements characterize most large cities in LMIC. Previous evidence suggests pharmacies may be the most frequently used source of primary care in LMICs but that pharmacy services are of variable quality. However, evidence on pharmacy use and availability is very limited for slum populations. Methods: We conducted household, individual, and healthcare provider surveys and qualitative observations on pharmacies and pharmacy use in seven slum sites in four countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). All pharmacies and up to 1200 households in each site were sampled. Adults and children were surveyed about their use of healthcare services and pharmacies were observed and their services, equipment, and stock documented. Results: We completed 7692 household and 7451 individual adults, 2633 individual child surveys, and 157 surveys of pharmacies located within the seven sites. Visit rates to pharmacies and drug sellers varied from 0.1 (Nigeria) to 3.0 (Bangladesh) visits per person-year, almost all of which were for new conditions. We found highly variable conditions in what constituted a “pharmacy” across the sites and most pharmacies did not employ a qualified pharmacist. Analgesics and antibiotics were widely available but other categories of medications, particularly those for chronic illness were often not available anywhere. The majority of pharmacies lacked basic equipment such as a thermometer and weighing scales. Conclusions: Pharmacies are locally and widely available to residents of slums. However, the conditions of the facilities and availability of medicines were poor and prices relatively high. Pharmacies may represent a large untapped resource to improving access to primary care for the urban poor.

KW - Healthcare access

KW - LMICs

KW - Pharmacies

KW - Slums

KW - Welfare

U2 - 10.1186/s12913-021-06937-9

DO - 10.1186/s12913-021-06937-9

M3 - Journal article

VL - 21

JO - BMC Health Services Research

JF - BMC Health Services Research

SN - 1472-6963

IS - 1

M1 - 945

ER -