Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Precrops alleviate soil physical limitations fo...

Links

Text available via DOI:

View graph of relations

Precrops alleviate soil physical limitations for soybean root growth in an Oxisol from southern Brazil

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Published
  • A.M. Bertollo
  • M.T.D. Moraes
  • J.C. Franchini
  • A. Soltangheisi
  • A.A. Balbinot Junior
  • R. Levien
  • H. Debiasi
Close
Article number104820
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/02/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Soil and Tillage Research
Volume206
Number of pages11
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date16/10/20
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

The impact of soil compaction on soybean root growth and grain yield can be alleviated by the presence of biopores and root channels in the soil profile. We hypothesize that cover crops (ruzigrass and oats) are better than grain crops (wheat and maize) to reduce the soil physical limitation to soybean root growth. We aimed to identify which precrops have higher potential to reduce the mechanical and water stresses resulting from soil compaction and soil desegregation, and to enhance soybean (Glycine max L) root growth and yield in an Oxisol (Rhodic Eutrudox), with clayey soil texture. Soybean was grown after four precrops (ruzigrass, oats, wheat, or maize), under four soil compaction levels [soil chiselling (MTC), no-tillage (NT), NT additionally compacted with four passes of a tractor (NTCT), and NT additionally compacted with eight passes of a grain harvester (NTCH)]. Soil physical attributes (bulk density, macroporosity, water-filled pore space and soil penentration resistance) in the soil profile (0−50 cm) and soybean components (grain yield, cumulative root length density and root dry mass) were investigated. Soil physical attributes were improved over time due to the combined effects of natural wetting-drying cycles and biopores created by the roots of precrops. Ruzigrass increased soybean root biomass and length density, mainly at deeper soil layers of compacted treatments (NTCT and NTCH). The rate of increase of soybean root length density in the soil profile was higher after ruzigrass cultivation in comparison with maize and oats. Soil compaction effects on grain yield were partially (NTCH) or totally (NTCT) alleviated after two years and ruzigrass intensified the mitigation process. Ruzigrass also resulted in higher soybean yields in comparison with maize, whereas NTCH and MTC reduced yields in approximately 400 kg ha−1 (∼13 %) compared to NT and NTCT. Soil strengthening was more evident after ruzigrass and oats cultivation than maize or wheat cropping. Soil compaction in clayey Oxisols can be alleviated over time as a result of root channels provided by precrops combined with natural wetting-drying cycles. Among the evaluated precrops, ruzigrass is of particular interest, as it provides the most suitable soil physical environment for soybean root growth and grain yield. In contrast, chiselling was demonstrated to be a non-viable strategy to mitigate soil physical constraints for root growth and grain yields. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

Bibliographic note

Export Date: 30 October 2020 CODEN: SOTRD Correspondence Address: Moraes, M.T.D.; Federal University of Technology-Paraná, Campus Francisco Beltrão, Department of Agronomic Science, PO Box 135, Francisco Beltrão, Brazil; email: mtmoraes@utfpr.edu.br Funding details: Fundação Agrisus, PA Nº 1236/13 Funding details: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES Funding details: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP, 2019/21532-7, 2017/11332-5 Funding details: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP Funding text 1: We thank the staff of the Crop and Soil Management Department of Embrapa Soja, Donizete Aparecido Loni, Mariluci da Silva Pires, Everson Balbino, Eliseu Custodio, João Ribeiro de Macedo (in memoriam), Agostinho Aparecido da Silva, Ildefonso Acosta Carvalho, and Gustavo Garbelini, for their assistance over the experiment and data collection period. This study received funding from AGRISUS Foundation - Sustainable Agriculture ( PA Nº 1236/13 ). A.M.B. and M.T.M. acknowledges for PhD scholarships from the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) . A.S is grateful to São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) , which supported the fellowships ( 2017/11332-5 and 2019/21532-7 ). References: Abdollahi, L., Hansen, E.M., Rickson, R.J., Munkholm, L.J., Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: effects of location, rotation and tillage (2015) Soil Tillage Res., 145, pp. 29-36; Alvares, C.A., Stape, J.L., Sentelhas, P.C., de Moraes Gonçalves, J.L., Sparovek, G., Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil (2013) Meteorol. Zeitschrift, 22, pp. 711-728; Alvarez, R., Steinbach, H.S., A review of the effects of tillage systems on some soil physical properties, water content, nitrate availability and crops yield in the Argentine Pampas (2009) Soil Tillage Res., 104, pp. 1-15; Battisti, R., Sentelhas, P.C., Improvement of soybean resilience to drought through deep root system in Brazil (2017) Agron. J., 109, p. 1612; Bengough, A.G., McKenzie, B.M., Hallett, P.D., Valentine, T.A., Root elongation, water stress, and mechanical impedance: a review of limiting stresses and beneficial root tip traits (2011) J. Exp. Bot., 62, pp. 59-68; Bodner, G., Leitner, D., Kaul, H.P., Coarse and fine root plants affect pore size distributions differently (2014) Plant Soil, 380, pp. 133-151; Böhm, W., Methods of studying root systems, biological conservation (1979) Ecological Studies, , Springer Berlin Heidelberg Berlin; Bonetti, J., de, A., Anghinoni, I., Moraes, M.T., Fink, J.R., de Andrade Bonetti, J., Anghinoni, I., Fink, J.R., Resilience of soils with different texture, mineralogy and organic matter under long-term conservation systems (2017) Soil Tillage Res., 174, pp. 104-112; Busscher, W.J., Adjustment of flat-tipped penetrometer resistance data to a common water content (1990) Trans. ASAE, 33, pp. 0519-0524; Calonego, J.C., Rosolem, C.A., Soybean root growth and yield in rotation with cover crops under chiseling and no-till (2010) Eur. J. Agron., 33, pp. 242-249; Calonego, J.C., Raphael, J.P.A., Rigon, J.P.G., Oliveira Neto, L., Rosolem, C.A., Soil compaction management and soybean yields with cover crops under no-till and occasional chiseling (2017) Eur. J. Agron., 85, pp. 31-37; Colombi, T., Torres, L.C., Walter, A., Keller, T., Feedbacks between soil penetration resistance, root architecture and water uptake limit water accessibility and crop growth – a vicious circle (2018) Sci. Total Environ., 626, pp. 1026-1035; Dal Ferro, N., Sartori, L., Simonetti, G., Berti, A., Morari, F., Soil macro- and microstructure as affected by different tillage systems and their effects on maize root growth (2014) Soil Tillage Res., 140, pp. 55-65; Engel, F.L., Bertol, I., Ritter, S.R., Paz González, A., Paz-Ferreiro, J., Vidal Vázquez, E., Soil erosion under simulated rainfall in relation to phenological stages of soybeans and tillage methods in Lages, SC (2009) Brazil. Soil Tillage Res., 103, pp. 216-221; FEBRAPD, Área Do Sistema Plantio Direto [WWW Document] (2019), https://febrapdp.org.br/area-de-pd, Fed. Bras. Plantio Direto e Irrig. URL (accessed 10.31.19); Franchini, J.C., Debiasi, H., Balbinot, A.A., Jr., Tonon, B.C., Farias, J.R.B., Oliveira, M.C.N., Torres, E., Evolution of crop yields in different tillage and cropping systems over two decades in southern Brazil (2012) F. Crop. Res., 137, pp. 178-185; Fuentes, M., Govaerts, B., De León, F., Hidalgo, C., Dendooven, L., Sayre, K.D., Etchevers, J., Fourteen years of applying zero and conventional tillage, crop rotation and residue management systems and its effect on physical and chemical soil quality (2009) Eur. J. Agron., 30, pp. 228-237; Gregory, A.S., Watts, C.W., Whalley, W.R., Kuan, H.L., Griffiths, B.S., Hallett, P.D., Whitmore, A.P., Physical resilience of soil to field compaction and the interactions with plant growth and microbial community structure (2007) Eur. J. Soil Sci., 58, pp. 1221-1232; Håkansson, I., Lipiec, J., A review of the usefulness of relative bulk density values in studies of soil structure and compaction (2000) Soil Tillage Res., 53, pp. 71-85; Hamza, M.A., Anderson, W.K., Soil compaction in cropping systems: a review of the nature, causes and possible solutions (2005) Soil Tillage Res., 82, pp. 121-145; Han, E., Kautz, T., Perkons, U., Lüsebrink, M., Pude, R., Köpke, U., Quantification of soil biopore density after perennial fodder cropping (2015) Plant Soil, 394, pp. 73-85; Han, E., Kautz, T., Köpke, U., Precrop root system determines root diameter of subsequent crop (2016) Biol. Fertil. Soils, 52, pp. 113-118; Han, E., Kautz, T., Huang, N., Köpke, U., Dynamics of plant nutrient uptake as affected by biopore-associated root growth in arable subsoil (2017) Plant Soil, 415, pp. 145-160; Jakobsen, B.E., Dexter, A.R., Influence of biopores on root growth, water uptake and grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on predictions from a computer model (1988) Biol. Fertil. Soils, 6, pp. 315-321; Jorge, L.A.C., Silva, D.J.C.B., Safira: Manual De Utilização (2010), 1a ed ed. Embrapa Istrumentação Agropecuária São Carlos, SP; Kautz, T., Research on subsoil biopores and their functions in organically managed soils: a review (2015) Renew. Agric. Food Syst., 30, pp. 318-327; Keller, T., A Model for the Prediction of the Contact Area and the Distribution of Vertical Stress below Agricultural Tyres from Readily Available Tyre Parameters (2005) Biosyst. Eng., 92, pp. 85-96; Klein, V.A., Camara, R.K., Rendimento da soja e intervalo hídrico ótimo em latossolo vermelho sob plantio direto escarificado (2007) Rev. Bras. Ciência do Solo, 31, pp. 221-227; Lal, R., Reicosky, D.C., Hanson, J.D., Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming (2007) Soil Tillage Res., 93, pp. 1-12; Landl, M., Schnepf, A., Uteau, D., Peth, S., Athmann, M., Kautz, T., Perkons, U., Vanderborght, J., Modeling the impact of biopores on root growth and root water uptake (2019) Vadose Zone J., 18, p. 0; Leitner, D., Meunier, F., Bodner, G., Javaux, M., Schnepf, A., Impact of contrasted maize root traits at flowering on water stress tolerance – a simulation study (2014) F. Crop. Res., 165, pp. 125-137; McKenzie, B.M., Bengough, A.G., Hallett, P.D., Thomas, W.T.B., Forster, B., McNicol, J.W., Deep rooting and drought screening of cereal crops: a novel field-based method and its application (2009) F. Crop. Res., 112, pp. 165-171; Melero, S., Panettieri, M., Madejón, E., Macpherson, H.G., Moreno, F., Murillo, J.M., Implementation of chiselling and mouldboard ploughing in soil after 8 years of no-till management in SW, Spain: effect on soil quality (2011) Soil Tillage Res., 112, pp. 107-113; Moraes, M.T., Silva, V.R., Zwirtes, A.L., Carlesso, R., Use of penetrometers in agriculture: a review (2014) Eng. Agrícola, 34, pp. 179-193; Moraes, M.T., Debiasi, H., Carlesso, R., Franchini, J.C., Silva, V.R., Bonini da Luz, F., Soil physical quality on tillage and cropping systems after two decades in the subtropical region of Brazil (2016) Soil Tillage Res., 155, pp. 351-362; Moraes, M.T., Debiasi, H., Franchini, J.C., Silva, V.R., Benefícios das plantas de cobertura sobre as propriedades físicas do solo (2016) Manejo e conservação do solo e da água em pequenas propriedades rurais no sul do Brasil: Práticas alternativas de manejo visando a conservação do solo e da água, pp. 34-48. , http://hdl.handle.net/10183/149123, T. Tiecher UFRGS Porto Alegre; Moraes, M.T., Debiasi, H., Carlesso, R., Franchini, J.C., Silva, V.R., Luz, F.B., Age-hardening phenomena in an oxisol from the subtropical region of Brazil (2017) Soil Tillage Res., 170, pp. 27-37; Moraes, M.T., Bengough, A.G., Debiasi, H., Franchini, J.C., Levien, R., Schnepf, A., Leitner, D., Mechanistic framework to link root growth models with weather and soil physical properties, including example applications to soybean growth in Brazil (2018) Plant Soil, 428, pp. 67-92; Moraes, M.T., Debiasi, H., Franchini, J.C., Modelling of soil water dynamics under tillage systems in a Rhodic Eutrudox (2018) Sci. Agrar., 19, pp. 142-152; Moraes, M.T., Debiasi, H., Franchini, J.C., Bonetti, J., de, A., Levien, R., Schnepf, A., Leitner, D., Mechanical and hydric stress effects on maize root system development at different soil compaction levels (2019) Front. Plant Sci., 10, p. 1358; Moraes, M.T., Luz, F.B., Debiasi, H., Franchini, J.C., Soil load support capacity increases with time without soil mobilization as a result of age-hardening phenomenon (2019) Soil Tillage Res., 186, pp. 128-134; Naveed, M., Brown, L.K., Raffan, A.C., George, T.S., Bengough, A.G., Roose, T., Sinclair, I., Hallett, P.D., Plant exudates may stabilize or weaken soil depending on species, origin and time (2017) Eur. J. Soil Sci., 68, pp. 806-816; Nunes, M.R., Denardin, J.E., Pauletto, E.A., Faganello, A., Pinto, L.F.S., Mitigation of clayey soil compaction managed under no-tillage (2015) Soil Tillage Res., 148, pp. 119-126; Oades, J.M., The role of biology in the formation, stabilization and degradation of soil structure (1993) Geoderma, 56, pp. 377-400; Ortigara, C., Physical and Hydric Properties of a Rhodic Eutrudox in Different Long-term Crop Systems. Master Dissertation (2017), p. 75. , Federal University of Santa Maria Frederico Westphalen (in Portuguese, with English abstract); Perkons, U., Kautz, T., Uteau, D., Peth, S., Geier, V., Thomas, K., Lütke Holz, K., Köpke, U., Root-length densities of various annual crops following crops with contrasting root systems (2014) Soil Tillage Res., 137, pp. 50-57; Rabot, E., Wiesmeier, M., Schlüter, S., Vogel, H.-J., Soil structure as an indicator of soil functions: a review (2018) Geoderma, 314, pp. 122-137; Reichert, J.M., Suzuki, L.E.A.S., Reinert, D.J., Horn, R., Håkansson, I., Reference bulk density and critical degree-of-compactness for no-till crop production in subtropical highly weathered soils (2009) Soil Tillage Res., 102, pp. 242-254; Reichert, J.M., da Rosa, V.T., Vogelmann, E.S., da Rosa, D.P., Horn, R., Reinert, D.J., Sattler, A., Denardin, J.E., Conceptual framework for capacity and intensity physical soil properties affected by short and long-term (14 years) continuous no-tillage and controlled traffic (2016) Soil Tillage Res., 158, pp. 123-136; Romero-Ruiz, A., Linde, N., Keller, T., Or, D., A review of geophysical methods for soil structure characterization (2018) Rev. Geophys., 56, pp. 672-697; Rosolem, C.A., Pivetta, L.A., Mechanical and biological approaches to alleviate soil compaction in tropical soils: assessed by root growth and activity (Rb uptake) of soybean and maize grown in rotation with cover crops (2017) Soil Use Manag., 33, pp. 141-152; SAS Institute Inc, SAS Enterprise Guide (2013); Scarpare, F.V., de Jong van Lier, Q., de Camargo, L., Pires, R.C.M., Ruiz-Corrêa, S.T., Bezerra, A.H.F., Gava, G.J.C., Dias, C.T.S., Tillage effects on soil physical condition and root growth associated with sugarcane water availability (2019) Soil Tillage Res., 187, pp. 110-118; Schjønning, P., Lamandé, M., A note on the vertical stresses near the soil-tyre interface (2010) Soil Tillage Res., 108, pp. 77-82; Sentelhas, P.C., Battisti, R., Câmara, G.M.S., Farias, J.R.B., Hampf, A.C., Nendel, C., The soybean yield gap in Brazil – magnitude, causes and possible solutions for sustainable production (2015) J. Agric. Sci., 153, pp. 1394-1411; Shampine, L.F., Vectorized adaptive quadrature in MATLAB (2008) J. Comput. Appl. Math., 211, pp. 131-140; Silva, A.P., Babujia, L.C., Franchini, J.C., Souza, R.A., Hungria, M., Microbial biomass under various soil- and crop-management systems in short- and long-term experiments in Brazil (2010) F. Crop. Res., 119, pp. 20-26; Silva, A.P., Babujia, L.C., Franchini, J.C., Ralisch, R., Hungria, M., Guimarães, M.F., Soil structure and its influence on microbial biomass in different soil and crop management systems (2014) Soil Tillage Res., 142, pp. 42-53; Teixeira, P.C., Donagemma, G.K., Fontana, A., Teixeira, W.G., Manual de métodos de análise de solo (2017), 3a ed. ed, Manuel d'utilisation Embrapa Solos, Brasilia, DF; Tivet, F., De Moraes Sá, J.C., Lal, R., Borszowskei, P.R., Briedis, C., dos Santos, J.B., Sá, M.F.M., Séguy, L., Soil organic carbon fraction losses upon continuous plow-based tillage and its restoration by diverse biomass-C inputs under no-till in sub-tropical and tropical regions of Brazil (2013) Geoderma, 209-210, pp. 214-225; Torres, E., Saraiva, O.F., Camadas de impedimento mecânico do solo em sistemas agrícolas com a soja (1999) Embrapa Soja, Circular Técnica, p. 58. , CNPSo Londrina; Utomo, W.H., Dexter, A.R., Age hardening of agricultural top soils (1981) J. Soil Sci., 32, pp. 335-350; Williams, S.M., Weil, R.R., Crop cover root channels may alleviate soil compaction effects on soybean crop (2004) Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68, pp. 1403-1409; Wuest, S.B., Soil biopore estimation: effects of tillage, nitrogen, and photographic resolution (2001) Soil Tillage Res., 62, pp. 111-116; Yu, Y., Loiskandl, W., Kaul, H.-P., Himmelbauer, M., Wei, W., Chen, L., Bodner, G., Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems (2016) J. Hydrol., 538, pp. 667-676; Zhang, Z., Liu, K., Zhou, H., Lin, H., Li, D., Peng, X., Three dimensional characteristics of biopores and non-biopores in the subsoil respond differently to land use and fertilization (2018) Plant Soil, 428, pp. 453-467