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Prevalence, awareness, and associated risk factors of hypertension in older adults in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Published
Article number192
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>4/10/2017
<mark>Journal</mark>Systematic Reviews
Issue number1
Volume6
Number of pages8
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The health of older persons has not been a major priority in many African countries. Hypertension is one of the common health problems of older persons. However, there is little information on the prevalence of hypertension in older adults in Africa. This is in spite of the fact that Africa has the highest age-standardized prevalence of hypertension in the world. We therefore present this protocol to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of hypertension and the level of its awareness among older persons living in Africa.

METHODS: Major databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO) and unpublished literature will be searched to identify population-based studies on hypertension in adults aged 50 years and older living in Africa. Eligible articles are those which use the 140/90-mmHg cutoff to diagnose hypertension and were published from 1980 to present. We will exclude subjects in restricted environments such as patients and refugees. Articles will be independently evaluated by two reviewers to determine if they meet the inclusion criteria. They will also evaluate the quality of included studies using a validated tool by Hoy and colleagues for prevalence studies. The main outcome is the prevalence of hypertension while the explanatory variables include demographic, socio-economic, dietary, lifestyle and behavioural factors. Effect sizes in bivariate and multivariate analyses will be presented as odds or prevalence ratios. We will explore for heterogeneity of the standard errors across the studies, and if appropriate, we will perform a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to present a summary estimate of the prevalence of hypertension in this population.

DISCUSSION: The estimates of the prevalence, the risk factors and the level of awareness of hypertension could help in galvanizing efforts at prioritizing the cardiovascular health of older persons in Africa.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017056474.