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Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures

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Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures. / Forbes, Anne; Blake, Steven; McGarvie, David W. et al.

In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 245-246, 01.11.2012, p. 68-80.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Forbes, A, Blake, S, McGarvie, DW & Tuffen, H 2012, 'Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 245-246, pp. 68-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.07.007

APA

Vancouver

Forbes A, Blake S, McGarvie DW, Tuffen H. Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2012 Nov 1;245-246:68-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.07.007

Author

Forbes, Anne ; Blake, Steven ; McGarvie, David W. et al. / Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures. In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2012 ; Vol. 245-246. pp. 68-80.

Bibtex

@article{47c67a3518994d4c9ae4ac168ca9b726,
title = "Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures",
abstract = "Detailed field observations of structures within the flow front of a Holocene trachyandesite lava from Sn{\ae}fellsnes, Iceland, are presented. The lava provides exceptional three-dimensional exposure of complex brittle and ductile deformation textures that record processes of lava fracture and quenching driven by external water.The flow front interior is characterised by structures consisting of a large (metre-scale) curviplanar master fracture with many smaller (centimetre-scale) subsidiary fractures perpendicular to the master fracture. Such structures have previously been recognised in a range of lava compositions from basalt to dacite and called pseudopillows or pseudopillow fractures. We propose the term pseudopillow fracture systems to emphasise the consistent package of different fracture types occurring together. All documented occurrences of pseudopillow fracture systems are in lavas that have been inferred to interact with an aqueous coolant (i.e. liquid water, ice or snow).We use fracture surface textures and their orientation in relation to flow banding to identify three distinct types of master fracture and two types of subsidiary fractures. Master fracture surface textures used to identify fracture mechanisms include chisel marks (striae), cavitation dimples, river lines and rough/smooth fracture surface textures. These indicate both brittle and ductile fracture happening on different types of master fracture. Chisel marks on subsidiary fractures indicate comparative cooling rates, cooling directions and isotherm orientations at the time of fracture. We propose a model for pseudopillow fracture system formation taking into account all the various fracture types, textures and fracture propagation mechanisms and discuss their implications for interaction mechanisms between lava flows and external coolants.",
keywords = "pseudopillow fractures, Columnar jointing, lava, trachyandesite, snaefellsjokull, fracture mechanics, lava-water interaction, volcanic glass",
author = "Anne Forbes and Steven Blake and McGarvie, {David W.} and Hugh Tuffen",
year = "2012",
month = nov,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.07.007",
language = "English",
volume = "245-246",
pages = "68--80",
journal = "Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research",
issn = "0377-0273",
publisher = "Elsevier Science B.V.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: Insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures

AU - Forbes, Anne

AU - Blake, Steven

AU - McGarvie, David W.

AU - Tuffen, Hugh

PY - 2012/11/1

Y1 - 2012/11/1

N2 - Detailed field observations of structures within the flow front of a Holocene trachyandesite lava from Snæfellsnes, Iceland, are presented. The lava provides exceptional three-dimensional exposure of complex brittle and ductile deformation textures that record processes of lava fracture and quenching driven by external water.The flow front interior is characterised by structures consisting of a large (metre-scale) curviplanar master fracture with many smaller (centimetre-scale) subsidiary fractures perpendicular to the master fracture. Such structures have previously been recognised in a range of lava compositions from basalt to dacite and called pseudopillows or pseudopillow fractures. We propose the term pseudopillow fracture systems to emphasise the consistent package of different fracture types occurring together. All documented occurrences of pseudopillow fracture systems are in lavas that have been inferred to interact with an aqueous coolant (i.e. liquid water, ice or snow).We use fracture surface textures and their orientation in relation to flow banding to identify three distinct types of master fracture and two types of subsidiary fractures. Master fracture surface textures used to identify fracture mechanisms include chisel marks (striae), cavitation dimples, river lines and rough/smooth fracture surface textures. These indicate both brittle and ductile fracture happening on different types of master fracture. Chisel marks on subsidiary fractures indicate comparative cooling rates, cooling directions and isotherm orientations at the time of fracture. We propose a model for pseudopillow fracture system formation taking into account all the various fracture types, textures and fracture propagation mechanisms and discuss their implications for interaction mechanisms between lava flows and external coolants.

AB - Detailed field observations of structures within the flow front of a Holocene trachyandesite lava from Snæfellsnes, Iceland, are presented. The lava provides exceptional three-dimensional exposure of complex brittle and ductile deformation textures that record processes of lava fracture and quenching driven by external water.The flow front interior is characterised by structures consisting of a large (metre-scale) curviplanar master fracture with many smaller (centimetre-scale) subsidiary fractures perpendicular to the master fracture. Such structures have previously been recognised in a range of lava compositions from basalt to dacite and called pseudopillows or pseudopillow fractures. We propose the term pseudopillow fracture systems to emphasise the consistent package of different fracture types occurring together. All documented occurrences of pseudopillow fracture systems are in lavas that have been inferred to interact with an aqueous coolant (i.e. liquid water, ice or snow).We use fracture surface textures and their orientation in relation to flow banding to identify three distinct types of master fracture and two types of subsidiary fractures. Master fracture surface textures used to identify fracture mechanisms include chisel marks (striae), cavitation dimples, river lines and rough/smooth fracture surface textures. These indicate both brittle and ductile fracture happening on different types of master fracture. Chisel marks on subsidiary fractures indicate comparative cooling rates, cooling directions and isotherm orientations at the time of fracture. We propose a model for pseudopillow fracture system formation taking into account all the various fracture types, textures and fracture propagation mechanisms and discuss their implications for interaction mechanisms between lava flows and external coolants.

KW - pseudopillow fractures

KW - Columnar jointing

KW - lava

KW - trachyandesite

KW - snaefellsjokull

KW - fracture mechanics

KW - lava-water interaction

KW - volcanic glass

U2 - 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.07.007

DO - 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.07.007

M3 - Journal article

VL - 245-246

SP - 68

EP - 80

JO - Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

JF - Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

SN - 0377-0273

ER -