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Raman spectroscopy of natural bone and synthetic apatites

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • A.F. Khan
  • M. Awais
  • A.S. Khan
  • S. Tabassum
  • A.A. Chaudhry
  • I.U. Rehman
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2013
Issue number4
Number of pages27
Pages (from-to)329-355
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Raman spectroscopy of natural bones and hydroxyapatites is described. In addition, how Raman spectroscopy has proved crucial in providing baseline data for the modification of synthetic apatite powders that are routinely used now as bone replacement materials is explained. It is important to understand the chemical structural properties of natural bone. Bone consists of two primary components: an inorganic or mineral phase, which is mainly a carbonated form of a nanoscale crystalline calcium phosphate, closely resembling hydroxyapatite, and an organic phase, which is composed largely of type I collagen fibers. Other constituents of bone tissue include water and organic molecules such as glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, lipids, and peptides. Ions such as sodium, magnesium, fluoride, and citrate are also present, as well as hydrogenophosphate. Hence, the mineral phase in bone may be characterized essentially as nonstoichiometric substituted apatite. Such a distinction is important in the development of synthetic calcium phosphates for application as skeletal implants. An understanding of bone function and its interfacial relationship to an implant clearly depends on the associated structure and composition. Therefore, it is essential to fully understand the chemical composition of bone, and Raman spectroscopy is an excellent technique for such an analysis. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.