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Rapid laccolith intrusion driven by explosive volcanic eruption

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Jonathan Castro
  • Benoit Cordonnier
  • C. Ian Schipper
  • Hugh Tuffen
  • Tobias Baumann
  • Yves Feisel
Article number13585
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>23/11/2016
<mark>Journal</mark>Nature Communications
Number of pages7
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month. Digital terrain models resolve a laccolith-shaped body ∼0.8 km3. Deformation and conduit flow models indicate laccolith depths of only ∼20–200 m and overpressures (∼1–10 MPa) that likely stemmed from conduit blockage. Our results show that explosive eruptions may rapidly force significant quantities of magma in the crust to build laccoliths. These iconic intrusions can thus be interpreted as eruptive features that pose unique and previously unrecognized volcanic hazards.