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Reductions and changing patterns of ambient PCDD/Fs in the UK : evidence and implications.

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Reductions and changing patterns of ambient PCDD/Fs in the UK : evidence and implications. / Hassanin, Ashraf; Lee, Robert G. M.; Johnston, A. E.; Jones, Kevin C.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 65, No. 3, 10.2006, p. 530-539.

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Hassanin, Ashraf ; Lee, Robert G. M. ; Johnston, A. E. ; Jones, Kevin C. / Reductions and changing patterns of ambient PCDD/Fs in the UK : evidence and implications. In: Chemosphere. 2006 ; Vol. 65, No. 3. pp. 530-539.

Bibtex

@article{a3e22fb3c1f94ea9a013dba97a8e4215,
title = "Reductions and changing patterns of ambient PCDD/Fs in the UK : evidence and implications.",
abstract = "Archived herbage samples taken between the mid-1800s and the present day from the Park Grass permanent grassland experiment in the UK were analysed for PCDD/Fs. The concentrations of ∑P(4–8)CDD/Fs ranged between 15 (in 2003–2004) and 320 pg/g (in 1963) and the ∑TEQ ranged between 0.11 (2003–2004) and 2.4 pg/g in (1903). The underlying trend from the mid-1970s to the present is of a decline by about factor of 10, indicating a general reduction in the air concentration/deposition fluxes. The homologue pattern in samples from the first half of the 20th century was characterised by the lower (mono- to tri-) PCDFs, indicating the dominance of domestic wood/coal burning on the ∑P(1–8)CDD/Fs signature. The second half of the 20th century saw a substantial decline in domestic wood/coal burning for space heating in the UK, but also the {\textquoteleft}rise and fall{\textquoteright} in the production/use of chloroaromatic compounds—notably pentachlorophenol (PCP). The isomer/homologue patterns for the 1960–2004 samples have a much lower contribution from the lower PCDFs and large contributions from the hepta and octa-CDDs. The possibility that these are related to PCP inputs via different routes is discussed. The UK—in line with other countries—has had a policy to reduce the environmental sources and the emissions of PCDD/Fs, by the introduction of new combustion control technologies and emissions standards. However, these were not introduced to specifically address PCDD/F emissions until the 1990s. The declines in PCDD/F levels in these samples: (a) pre-date the introduction of emission control measures on incinerators and other combustion sources in the UK; (b) appear to have been largely unaffected by them.",
keywords = "Dioxins, PCDD/F, Herbage, Trend, United Kingdom, Sources, Pattern",
author = "Ashraf Hassanin and Lee, {Robert G. M.} and Johnston, {A. E.} and Jones, {Kevin C.}",
year = "2006",
month = oct,
doi = "10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.032",
language = "English",
volume = "65",
pages = "530--539",
journal = "Chemosphere",
issn = "0045-6535",
publisher = "NLM (Medline)",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reductions and changing patterns of ambient PCDD/Fs in the UK : evidence and implications.

AU - Hassanin, Ashraf

AU - Lee, Robert G. M.

AU - Johnston, A. E.

AU - Jones, Kevin C.

PY - 2006/10

Y1 - 2006/10

N2 - Archived herbage samples taken between the mid-1800s and the present day from the Park Grass permanent grassland experiment in the UK were analysed for PCDD/Fs. The concentrations of ∑P(4–8)CDD/Fs ranged between 15 (in 2003–2004) and 320 pg/g (in 1963) and the ∑TEQ ranged between 0.11 (2003–2004) and 2.4 pg/g in (1903). The underlying trend from the mid-1970s to the present is of a decline by about factor of 10, indicating a general reduction in the air concentration/deposition fluxes. The homologue pattern in samples from the first half of the 20th century was characterised by the lower (mono- to tri-) PCDFs, indicating the dominance of domestic wood/coal burning on the ∑P(1–8)CDD/Fs signature. The second half of the 20th century saw a substantial decline in domestic wood/coal burning for space heating in the UK, but also the ‘rise and fall’ in the production/use of chloroaromatic compounds—notably pentachlorophenol (PCP). The isomer/homologue patterns for the 1960–2004 samples have a much lower contribution from the lower PCDFs and large contributions from the hepta and octa-CDDs. The possibility that these are related to PCP inputs via different routes is discussed. The UK—in line with other countries—has had a policy to reduce the environmental sources and the emissions of PCDD/Fs, by the introduction of new combustion control technologies and emissions standards. However, these were not introduced to specifically address PCDD/F emissions until the 1990s. The declines in PCDD/F levels in these samples: (a) pre-date the introduction of emission control measures on incinerators and other combustion sources in the UK; (b) appear to have been largely unaffected by them.

AB - Archived herbage samples taken between the mid-1800s and the present day from the Park Grass permanent grassland experiment in the UK were analysed for PCDD/Fs. The concentrations of ∑P(4–8)CDD/Fs ranged between 15 (in 2003–2004) and 320 pg/g (in 1963) and the ∑TEQ ranged between 0.11 (2003–2004) and 2.4 pg/g in (1903). The underlying trend from the mid-1970s to the present is of a decline by about factor of 10, indicating a general reduction in the air concentration/deposition fluxes. The homologue pattern in samples from the first half of the 20th century was characterised by the lower (mono- to tri-) PCDFs, indicating the dominance of domestic wood/coal burning on the ∑P(1–8)CDD/Fs signature. The second half of the 20th century saw a substantial decline in domestic wood/coal burning for space heating in the UK, but also the ‘rise and fall’ in the production/use of chloroaromatic compounds—notably pentachlorophenol (PCP). The isomer/homologue patterns for the 1960–2004 samples have a much lower contribution from the lower PCDFs and large contributions from the hepta and octa-CDDs. The possibility that these are related to PCP inputs via different routes is discussed. The UK—in line with other countries—has had a policy to reduce the environmental sources and the emissions of PCDD/Fs, by the introduction of new combustion control technologies and emissions standards. However, these were not introduced to specifically address PCDD/F emissions until the 1990s. The declines in PCDD/F levels in these samples: (a) pre-date the introduction of emission control measures on incinerators and other combustion sources in the UK; (b) appear to have been largely unaffected by them.

KW - Dioxins

KW - PCDD/F

KW - Herbage

KW - Trend

KW - United Kingdom

KW - Sources

KW - Pattern

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.032

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.032

M3 - Journal article

VL - 65

SP - 530

EP - 539

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

IS - 3

ER -