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Regulation of Rubisco activity in crops

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>31/01/2024
<mark>Journal</mark>New Phytologist
Issue number1
Number of pages17
Pages (from-to)35-51
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date7/12/23
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Efficient plant acclimation to changing environmental conditions relies on fast adjustments of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Regulation of enzyme activity depends on the activity of specific chaperones, chemical post-translational modifications (PTMs) of amino acid residues, and changes in the cellular and organellar microenvironment. Central to carbon assimilation, and thus plant growth and yield, Rubisco activity is regulated by its chaperone Rubisco activase (Rca) and by adjustments in the chloroplast stroma environment. Focused on crops, this review highlights the main PTMs and stromal ions and metabolites affecting Rubisco and Rca in response to environmental stimuli. Rca isoforms differ in regulatory properties and heat sensitivity, with expression changing according to the surrounding environment. Much of the physiological relevance of Rubisco and Rca PTMs is still poorly understood, though some PTMs have been associated with Rubisco regulation in response to stress. Ion and metabolite concentrations in the chloroplast change in response to variations in light and temperature. Some of these changes promote Rubisco activation while others inhibit activation, deactivate the enzyme, or change the rates of catalysis. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms will aid the development of strategies to improve carbon fixation by Rubisco under rapidly changing environments as experienced by crop plants.