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Resisting chronopolitics of disaster: favelas and the politics of forced displacements in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

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Resisting chronopolitics of disaster : favelas and the politics of forced displacements in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. / Barbosa, Luciana; Coates, Robert.

In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 63, 102447, 30.09.2021.

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Barbosa, Luciana ; Coates, Robert. / Resisting chronopolitics of disaster : favelas and the politics of forced displacements in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2021 ; Vol. 63.

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@article{c39551253a4740daba6a575431f14abf,
title = "Resisting chronopolitics of disaster: favelas and the politics of forced displacements in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil",
abstract = "This article employs the notion of chronopolitics (Klinke 2013 [1]) to explore the place of disaster events within urban politics. A chronopolitics of disaster focuses on both governmental manipulation of the post-disaster space and the use of memory in resisting longstanding patterns of urban spatial segregation and forced removal: the creation and embodiment of alternative narratives of time and space to those mobilized by hegemonic actors. We draw here on the aftermath of calamitous landslides in favelas in Rio de Janeiro in 2010, during which 67 people died. In the wake of this traumatic event, the state moved quickly to close down political openings produced by the tragedy (Edkins 2006 [2]), focussing public attention on {\textquoteleft}future risk{\textquoteright} in order to put in place a rapid “recall” to favela displacement; a constant in Rio's politics since the early twentieth century. While changes in urban land formalisation and rights since the 1980s positioned forced displacement as an exception, we argue here that the much newer reductive vision of favelas as {\textquoteleft}at-risk{\textquoteright} places enables a return to the sovereign right to displace them. By working within a “time out of joint” (Zebrowski 2013: 213 [3]), the municipality established a dominant narration of city history that reinforces favelas as the principle problem facing urban politics, making displacement inevitable. The disaster event, then, elevates the politics of emergency response to a category of exceptionality in the post-dictatorship period, and lays the foundation for a renewed favela politics: a chronopolitics of disaster. The paper inductively expands the concept of chronopolitics, a politics of time, to analyse how calamitous events are used to normalise the exceptional, and how trauma and memory challenge narratives inspired by modern aspirations of a Rio without favelas.",
keywords = "Displacement, Favela, Event, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Chronopolitics",
author = "Luciana Barbosa and Robert Coates",
year = "2021",
month = sep,
day = "30",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102447",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
journal = "International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction",
issn = "2212-4209",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Resisting chronopolitics of disaster

T2 - favelas and the politics of forced displacements in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

AU - Barbosa, Luciana

AU - Coates, Robert

PY - 2021/9/30

Y1 - 2021/9/30

N2 - This article employs the notion of chronopolitics (Klinke 2013 [1]) to explore the place of disaster events within urban politics. A chronopolitics of disaster focuses on both governmental manipulation of the post-disaster space and the use of memory in resisting longstanding patterns of urban spatial segregation and forced removal: the creation and embodiment of alternative narratives of time and space to those mobilized by hegemonic actors. We draw here on the aftermath of calamitous landslides in favelas in Rio de Janeiro in 2010, during which 67 people died. In the wake of this traumatic event, the state moved quickly to close down political openings produced by the tragedy (Edkins 2006 [2]), focussing public attention on ‘future risk’ in order to put in place a rapid “recall” to favela displacement; a constant in Rio's politics since the early twentieth century. While changes in urban land formalisation and rights since the 1980s positioned forced displacement as an exception, we argue here that the much newer reductive vision of favelas as ‘at-risk’ places enables a return to the sovereign right to displace them. By working within a “time out of joint” (Zebrowski 2013: 213 [3]), the municipality established a dominant narration of city history that reinforces favelas as the principle problem facing urban politics, making displacement inevitable. The disaster event, then, elevates the politics of emergency response to a category of exceptionality in the post-dictatorship period, and lays the foundation for a renewed favela politics: a chronopolitics of disaster. The paper inductively expands the concept of chronopolitics, a politics of time, to analyse how calamitous events are used to normalise the exceptional, and how trauma and memory challenge narratives inspired by modern aspirations of a Rio without favelas.

AB - This article employs the notion of chronopolitics (Klinke 2013 [1]) to explore the place of disaster events within urban politics. A chronopolitics of disaster focuses on both governmental manipulation of the post-disaster space and the use of memory in resisting longstanding patterns of urban spatial segregation and forced removal: the creation and embodiment of alternative narratives of time and space to those mobilized by hegemonic actors. We draw here on the aftermath of calamitous landslides in favelas in Rio de Janeiro in 2010, during which 67 people died. In the wake of this traumatic event, the state moved quickly to close down political openings produced by the tragedy (Edkins 2006 [2]), focussing public attention on ‘future risk’ in order to put in place a rapid “recall” to favela displacement; a constant in Rio's politics since the early twentieth century. While changes in urban land formalisation and rights since the 1980s positioned forced displacement as an exception, we argue here that the much newer reductive vision of favelas as ‘at-risk’ places enables a return to the sovereign right to displace them. By working within a “time out of joint” (Zebrowski 2013: 213 [3]), the municipality established a dominant narration of city history that reinforces favelas as the principle problem facing urban politics, making displacement inevitable. The disaster event, then, elevates the politics of emergency response to a category of exceptionality in the post-dictatorship period, and lays the foundation for a renewed favela politics: a chronopolitics of disaster. The paper inductively expands the concept of chronopolitics, a politics of time, to analyse how calamitous events are used to normalise the exceptional, and how trauma and memory challenge narratives inspired by modern aspirations of a Rio without favelas.

KW - Displacement

KW - Favela

KW - Event

KW - Brazil

KW - Rio de Janeiro

KW - Chronopolitics

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102447

DO - 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102447

M3 - Journal article

VL - 63

JO - International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction

JF - International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction

SN - 2212-4209

M1 - 102447

ER -