Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Retention and mortality outcomes from a communi...

Electronic data

  • Retention and mortality outcomes from a community-supported public–private HIV treatment programme in Myanmar

    Rights statement: Copyright: © 2016 Mburu G et al; licensee International AIDS Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    Final published version, 472 KB, PDF document

    Available under license: CC BY


Text available via DOI:

View graph of relations

Retention and mortality outcomes from a community-supported public–private HIV treatment programme in Myanmar

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Gitau Mburu
  • Aung Zayar Paing
  • Nwe Ni Myint
  • Win Di
  • Kaung Htet Thu
  • Mala Ram
  • Christopher J Hoffmann
  • Bangyuan Wang
  • Soe Naing
Article number20926
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>25/10/2016
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of the International AIDS Society
Number of pages12
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Introduction: There is a growing interest in the potential contribution the private sector can make towards increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income settings. This article describes a public–private partnership that was developed to expand HIV care capacity in Yangon, Myanmar. The partnership was between private sector general practitioners (GPs) and a community-based non-governmental organization (International HIV/AIDS Alliance).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of 2119 patient records dating from March 2009 to April 2015 was conducted. Outcomes assessed were immunological response, loss to follow-up, all-cause mortality, and alive and retained in care. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of registration to the date of death, loss to follow-up, transfer out, or if still alive and known to be in care, until April 2015. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of loss to follow-up and mortality. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival function of being alive and retained in care.

Results: The median number of patients for each of the 16 GPs was 42 (interquartile range (IQR): 25–227), and the median follow-up period was 13 months. The median patient age was 35 years (IQR: 30–41); 56.6% were men, 62 and 11.8% were in WHO Stage III and Stage IV at registration, respectively; median CD4 count at registration was 177 cells/mm3; and 90.7% were on ART in April 2015. The median CD4 count at registration increased from 122 cells/mm3 in 2009 to 194 cells/mm3 in 2014. Among patients on ART, CD4 counts increased from a median of 187 cells/mm3 at registration to 436 cells/mm3 at 36 months. The median time to initiation of ART among eligible patients was 29 days, with 93.8% of eligible patients being initiated on ART within 90 days. Overall, 3.3% patients were lost to follow-up, 4.2% transferred out to other health facilities, and 8.3% died during the follow-up period. Crude mortality rate was 48.6/1000 person-years; 42% (n=74) of deaths occurred during the pre-ART period and 39.8% (n=70) occurred during the first six months of ART. Of those who died during the pre-ART period, 94.5% were eligible for ART. In multivariate regression, baseline CD4 count and ART status were independent predictors of mortality, whereas ART status, younger age and patient volumes per provider were predictors of loss to follow-up. Probability of being alive and retained in care at six months was 96.8% among those on ART, 38.5% among pre-ART but eligible patients, and 20.0% among ART-ineligible patients.

Conclusions: Effectively supported private sector GPs successfully administered and monitored ART in Myanmar, suggesting that community-supported private sector partnerships can contribute to expansion of HIV treatment and care capacity. To further improve patient outcomes, early testing and initiation of ART, combined with close clinical monitoring and support during the initial periods of enrolling in treatment and care, are required.