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Sublethal genotoxicity and cell alterations by organophosphorus pesticides in MCF-7 cells: implications for environmentally relevant concentrations

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Sublethal genotoxicity and cell alterations by organophosphorus pesticides in MCF-7 cells : implications for environmentally relevant concentrations. / Ukpebor, Justina; Llabjani, Valon; Martin, Frank et al.

In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, p. 632-639.

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@article{34325b7328474a669a5dd72efa78a92a,
title = "Sublethal genotoxicity and cell alterations by organophosphorus pesticides in MCF-7 cells: implications for environmentally relevant concentrations",
abstract = "Organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) toxicity is believed to be mediated through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Given their widespread distribution in aquatic systems and their ability to undergo chemical transformation, their environmental impacts at sublethal concentrations in nontarget organisms have become an important question. We conducted a number of mammalian-cell genotoxic and gene expression assays and examined cellular biochemical changes that followed low-dose exposure of MCF-7 cells to fenitrothion, diazinon, and the aqueous degradate of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMP). After exposure to the OPPs at low concentrations (10(-12) M to 10(-8) M), greater than twofold elevations in micronucleus formation were noted in MCF-7 cell cultures that went on to exhibit greater than 75% clonogenic survival; these levels of chromosomal damage were comparable to those induced by 10(-6) M benzo[a]pyrene, a known genotoxic agent. At this low concentration range, a fenitrothion-induced twofold elevation in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (CYP1A1) gene expressions was observed. Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) of derived infrared (IR) spectra of vehicle control (nonexposed) and OPP-exposed cells highlighted that both fenitrothion and diazinon induced marked biochemical alterations in the lipid, protein, and DNA/RNA absorbance regions. Our findings demonstrate that the two OPP parent chemicals and IMP degradate can mediate a number of toxic effects or cellular alterations at very low concentrations. These are independent of just selective inhibition of AChE, with potential consequences for nontarget organisms exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations. Further assays on relevant aquatic organism cell lines are now recommended to understand the mechanistic low-dose toxicity of these chemicals present in aquatic systems.",
keywords = "Clonogenic assay, Infrared spectroscopy , Low dose , Micronucleus assay , Organophosphorus insecticide",
author = "Justina Ukpebor and Valon Llabjani and Frank Martin and Halsall, {Crispin J}",
note = "Copyright {\textcopyright} 2011 SETAC.",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1002/etc.417",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "632--639",
journal = "Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry",
issn = "0730-7268",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sublethal genotoxicity and cell alterations by organophosphorus pesticides in MCF-7 cells

T2 - implications for environmentally relevant concentrations

AU - Ukpebor, Justina

AU - Llabjani, Valon

AU - Martin, Frank

AU - Halsall, Crispin J

N1 - Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) toxicity is believed to be mediated through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Given their widespread distribution in aquatic systems and their ability to undergo chemical transformation, their environmental impacts at sublethal concentrations in nontarget organisms have become an important question. We conducted a number of mammalian-cell genotoxic and gene expression assays and examined cellular biochemical changes that followed low-dose exposure of MCF-7 cells to fenitrothion, diazinon, and the aqueous degradate of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMP). After exposure to the OPPs at low concentrations (10(-12) M to 10(-8) M), greater than twofold elevations in micronucleus formation were noted in MCF-7 cell cultures that went on to exhibit greater than 75% clonogenic survival; these levels of chromosomal damage were comparable to those induced by 10(-6) M benzo[a]pyrene, a known genotoxic agent. At this low concentration range, a fenitrothion-induced twofold elevation in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (CYP1A1) gene expressions was observed. Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) of derived infrared (IR) spectra of vehicle control (nonexposed) and OPP-exposed cells highlighted that both fenitrothion and diazinon induced marked biochemical alterations in the lipid, protein, and DNA/RNA absorbance regions. Our findings demonstrate that the two OPP parent chemicals and IMP degradate can mediate a number of toxic effects or cellular alterations at very low concentrations. These are independent of just selective inhibition of AChE, with potential consequences for nontarget organisms exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations. Further assays on relevant aquatic organism cell lines are now recommended to understand the mechanistic low-dose toxicity of these chemicals present in aquatic systems.

AB - Organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) toxicity is believed to be mediated through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Given their widespread distribution in aquatic systems and their ability to undergo chemical transformation, their environmental impacts at sublethal concentrations in nontarget organisms have become an important question. We conducted a number of mammalian-cell genotoxic and gene expression assays and examined cellular biochemical changes that followed low-dose exposure of MCF-7 cells to fenitrothion, diazinon, and the aqueous degradate of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMP). After exposure to the OPPs at low concentrations (10(-12) M to 10(-8) M), greater than twofold elevations in micronucleus formation were noted in MCF-7 cell cultures that went on to exhibit greater than 75% clonogenic survival; these levels of chromosomal damage were comparable to those induced by 10(-6) M benzo[a]pyrene, a known genotoxic agent. At this low concentration range, a fenitrothion-induced twofold elevation in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (CYP1A1) gene expressions was observed. Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) of derived infrared (IR) spectra of vehicle control (nonexposed) and OPP-exposed cells highlighted that both fenitrothion and diazinon induced marked biochemical alterations in the lipid, protein, and DNA/RNA absorbance regions. Our findings demonstrate that the two OPP parent chemicals and IMP degradate can mediate a number of toxic effects or cellular alterations at very low concentrations. These are independent of just selective inhibition of AChE, with potential consequences for nontarget organisms exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations. Further assays on relevant aquatic organism cell lines are now recommended to understand the mechanistic low-dose toxicity of these chemicals present in aquatic systems.

KW - Clonogenic assay

KW - Infrared spectroscopy

KW - Low dose

KW - Micronucleus assay

KW - Organophosphorus insecticide

U2 - 10.1002/etc.417

DO - 10.1002/etc.417

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 21298709

VL - 30

SP - 632

EP - 639

JO - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

JF - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

SN - 0730-7268

IS - 3

ER -