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Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere.

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Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere. / Halsall, Crispin J.; Gevao, Bondi; Howsam, M.; Lee, R. G. M.; Ockenden, W.; Jones, Kevin C.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 33, No. 4, 02.1999, p. 541-552.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Halsall, CJ, Gevao, B, Howsam, M, Lee, RGM, Ockenden, W & Jones, KC 1999, 'Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere.', Atmospheric Environment, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 541-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00288-X

APA

Halsall, C. J., Gevao, B., Howsam, M., Lee, R. G. M., Ockenden, W., & Jones, K. C. (1999). Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 33(4), 541-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00288-X

Vancouver

Halsall CJ, Gevao B, Howsam M, Lee RGM, Ockenden W, Jones KC. Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment. 1999 Feb;33(4):541-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00288-X

Author

Halsall, Crispin J. ; Gevao, Bondi ; Howsam, M. ; Lee, R. G. M. ; Ockenden, W. ; Jones, Kevin C. / Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere. In: Atmospheric Environment. 1999 ; Vol. 33, No. 4. pp. 541-552.

Bibtex

@article{165fbfb533eb43e89bdfe5d0a73674e5,
title = "Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere.",
abstract = "A thermodynamic approach was taken to assess the state of equilibrium between air and the Earth{\textquoteright}s surface for PCBs at a variety of sites located in urban and rural areas. The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was applied to atmospheric PCB data, relating PCB partial vapour pressure (ln P) to inverse temperature (1/K); essentially representing the temperature controlled transition between condensed phases and the atmospheric gas phase. The slopes of the resulting plots ranged from −3100 to −8272 for a range of congeners at two city sites, significantly steeper than those generated at two rural locations, where there was little or no correlation between ln P and temperature. It was inferred that advection and variable meteorological conditions mask any localised, temperature dependent, air–surface exchange at these rural locations when weekly or two weekly integrated samples were taken. At a third rural site, close to Lancaster University, an intensive highly time-resolved sampling regime, carried out during very stable meteorological conditions resulted in highly correlated plots (r2>0.6), with slopes ranging from −7151 to −14 148 for different congeners. By reducing meteorological variables in this manner localised temperature controlled air–surface exchange became evident. Enthalpies of phase change generated from the temperature coefficients were similar to literature values for the enthalpy of vapourisation and the enthalpy of phase change from octanol to air. This suggests that, under these stable conditions, equilibrium was achieved as a function of either vapour pressure (P°L) or the octanol–air partition coefficient (KOA).",
keywords = "Semi-volatile organic compounds, Partial pressure, Phase equilibrium, Clausius–Clapeyron equation",
author = "Halsall, {Crispin J.} and Bondi Gevao and M. Howsam and Lee, {R. G. M.} and W. Ockenden and Jones, {Kevin C.}",
year = "1999",
month = feb,
doi = "10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00288-X",
language = "English",
volume = "33",
pages = "541--552",
journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
issn = "1352-2310",
publisher = "PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Temperature dependence of PCBs in the UK atmosphere.

AU - Halsall, Crispin J.

AU - Gevao, Bondi

AU - Howsam, M.

AU - Lee, R. G. M.

AU - Ockenden, W.

AU - Jones, Kevin C.

PY - 1999/2

Y1 - 1999/2

N2 - A thermodynamic approach was taken to assess the state of equilibrium between air and the Earth’s surface for PCBs at a variety of sites located in urban and rural areas. The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was applied to atmospheric PCB data, relating PCB partial vapour pressure (ln P) to inverse temperature (1/K); essentially representing the temperature controlled transition between condensed phases and the atmospheric gas phase. The slopes of the resulting plots ranged from −3100 to −8272 for a range of congeners at two city sites, significantly steeper than those generated at two rural locations, where there was little or no correlation between ln P and temperature. It was inferred that advection and variable meteorological conditions mask any localised, temperature dependent, air–surface exchange at these rural locations when weekly or two weekly integrated samples were taken. At a third rural site, close to Lancaster University, an intensive highly time-resolved sampling regime, carried out during very stable meteorological conditions resulted in highly correlated plots (r2>0.6), with slopes ranging from −7151 to −14 148 for different congeners. By reducing meteorological variables in this manner localised temperature controlled air–surface exchange became evident. Enthalpies of phase change generated from the temperature coefficients were similar to literature values for the enthalpy of vapourisation and the enthalpy of phase change from octanol to air. This suggests that, under these stable conditions, equilibrium was achieved as a function of either vapour pressure (P°L) or the octanol–air partition coefficient (KOA).

AB - A thermodynamic approach was taken to assess the state of equilibrium between air and the Earth’s surface for PCBs at a variety of sites located in urban and rural areas. The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was applied to atmospheric PCB data, relating PCB partial vapour pressure (ln P) to inverse temperature (1/K); essentially representing the temperature controlled transition between condensed phases and the atmospheric gas phase. The slopes of the resulting plots ranged from −3100 to −8272 for a range of congeners at two city sites, significantly steeper than those generated at two rural locations, where there was little or no correlation between ln P and temperature. It was inferred that advection and variable meteorological conditions mask any localised, temperature dependent, air–surface exchange at these rural locations when weekly or two weekly integrated samples were taken. At a third rural site, close to Lancaster University, an intensive highly time-resolved sampling regime, carried out during very stable meteorological conditions resulted in highly correlated plots (r2>0.6), with slopes ranging from −7151 to −14 148 for different congeners. By reducing meteorological variables in this manner localised temperature controlled air–surface exchange became evident. Enthalpies of phase change generated from the temperature coefficients were similar to literature values for the enthalpy of vapourisation and the enthalpy of phase change from octanol to air. This suggests that, under these stable conditions, equilibrium was achieved as a function of either vapour pressure (P°L) or the octanol–air partition coefficient (KOA).

KW - Semi-volatile organic compounds

KW - Partial pressure

KW - Phase equilibrium

KW - Clausius–Clapeyron equation

U2 - 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00288-X

DO - 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00288-X

M3 - Journal article

VL - 33

SP - 541

EP - 552

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

IS - 4

ER -