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  • UNetFormer_accepted

    Rights statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 190, 2022 DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2022.06.008

    Accepted author manuscript, 8.64 MB, PDF document

    Embargo ends: 24/06/23

    Available under license: CC BY-NC-ND: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

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UNetFormer: A UNet-like transformer for efficient semantic segmentation of remote sensing urban scene imagery

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>31/08/2022
<mark>Journal</mark>ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Volume190
Number of pages19
Pages (from-to)196-214
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date24/06/22
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Semantic segmentation of remotely sensed urban scene images is required in a wide range of practical applications, such as land cover mapping, urban change detection, environmental protection, and economic assessment. Driven by rapid developments in deep learning technologies, the convolutional neural network (CNN) has dominated semantic segmentation for many years. CNN adopts hierarchical feature representation, demonstrating strong capabilities for information extraction. However, the local property of the convolution layer limits the network from capturing the global context. Recently, as a hot topic in the domain of computer vision, Transformer has demonstrated its great potential in global information modelling, boosting many vision-related tasks such as image classification, object detection, and particularly semantic segmentation. In this paper, we propose a Transformer-based decoder and construct an UNet-like Transformer (UNetFormer) for real-time urban scene segmentation. For efficient segmentation, the UNetFormer selects the lightweight ResNet18 as the encoder and develops an efficient global–local attention mechanism to model both global and local information in the decoder. Extensive experiments reveal that our method not only runs faster but also produces higher accuracy compared with state-of-the-art lightweight models. Specifically, the proposed UNetFormer achieved 67.8% and 52.4% mIoU on the UAVid and LoveDA datasets, respectively, while the inference speed can achieve up to 322.4 FPS with a 512 × 512 input on a single NVIDIA GTX 3090 GPU. In further exploration, the proposed Transformer-based decoder combined with a Swin Transformer encoder also achieves the state-of-the-art result (91.3% F1 and 84.1% mIoU) on the Vaihingen dataset. The source code will be freely available at https://github.com/WangLibo1995/GeoSeg.

Bibliographic note

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 190, 2022 DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2022.06.008