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Where did all the benches go?: the effects of mall kiosks on perceived retail crowding

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>01/2011
<mark>Journal</mark>International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management
Issue number2
Number of pages14
Pages (from-to)130-143
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Purpose – This study aims to investigate how density conditions caused by multiple kiosks in shopping mall walkways affect shoppers' shopping outcomes based on psychological reactance theory and behavioural constraint theory.

Design/methodology/approach – The experiment uses a one-factor between-subjects design with two levels of density conditions (high vs low). A total of 382 respondents participated.

Findings – The findings of this paper indicate that respondents perceive the environment with kiosks as crowded and this perception of crowdedness negatively affects their approach behaviour, leading to lower intentions to patronise.

Practical implications – Findings provide practical information to mall managers by indicating that kiosks within a shopping mall negatively affect shopper patronage and approach intentions. Thus, mall managers need to pay more attention to the environmental atmospherics of the mall itself.

Originality/value – The paper is the first empirical research which examines how kiosks within a mall affect shopper shopping responses. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining how kiosks within a mall impact shoppers' psychological states and subsequently their approach/avoidance behaviours towards the shopping mall and patronage intention.