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Home > Research > Researchers > Tineke Brunfaut
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Tineke Brunfaut supervises 7 postgraduate research students. Some of the students have produced research profiles, these are listed below:

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Dr Tineke Brunfaut

Senior Lecturer

Tineke Brunfaut

County South

Lancaster University


Lancaster LA1 4YL

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 1524 594084


Research overview

My main research interests are language testing, and reading and listening in a foreign language (in particular in an academic context). I am currently working on research using eye tracking to look into reading task completion processes (see Brunfaut and McCray, 2015) and research on diagnosing second and foreign language proficiency (see Alderson, Brunfaut and Harding, 2015; Harding, Alderson and Brunfaut, 2015). Recently completed work includes a project on standard setting (see Brunfaut and Harding, 2014) and research on the relationships between text characteristics of task input, knowledge of response options, L2 proficiency, working memory capacity and task difficulty in L2 listening assessment (see Brunfaut and Revesz, 2015; Revesz and Brunfaut, 2013). Past research dealt with the impact of linguistic, metacognitive and affective factors on students' academic reading proficiency in L1 and FL.

In addition, I regularly conduct language test development and consultancy work for professional and educational bodies around the world.

In 2015, I was awarded the TOEFL Outstanding Young Scholar Award.

PhD supervision

I am especially interested in supervising PhD students in the areas of language testing (in particular, testing reading, testing listening, and testing for academic purposes) and reading research (in particular, reading in a foreign language and academic reading). My present and former PhD students' topics relate to testing reading (item difficulty and processing, test specifications, washback), integrated tasks (reading-to-write, listening-to-write, listening-to-speak), Language in Use tasks, and academic listening needs.


Some of my most recent publications include:

(for a more extensive list, see the 'Publications' tab)

Brunfaut, T. & McCray, G. (2015). Looking into test-takers' cognitive processes whilst completing reading tasks: a mixed-method eye-tracking and stimulated recall study. ARAGs Research Reports Online, Vol. AR/2015/001. London: The British Council. [FREE ACCESS]

Brunfaut, T., & Revesz, A. (2015). The role of task and listener characteristics in second language listening. TESOL Quarterly, 49(1), 141-168. doi: 10.1002/tesq.168 [FREE ACCESS]

Alderson, J.C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2015). Towards a theory of diagnosis in second and foreign language assessment: Insights from professional practice across diverse fields. Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 236-260. doi: 10.1093/applin/amt046 [FREE ACCESS]

Harding, L., Alderson, J.C., & Brunfaut, T. (2015). Diagnostic assessment of reading and listening in a second or foreign language: elaborating on diagnostic principles. Language Testing, 32(3), 317-336. doi:10.1177/0265532214564505 [FREE ACCESS]

Brunfaut, T. (2014). Language for specific purposes: Current and future issuesLanguage Assessment Quarterly 11(2), 216-225. 

Revesz, A., & Brunfaut, T. (2013). Text characteristics of task input and difficulty in second language listening comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 35(1), 31-65.


Some of my recent presentations include:

Brunfaut, T., & McCray, G. (2015). Cognitive processing during reading-test completion: Insights from eye tracking. Task-Based Language Teaching conference (TBLT), Leuven (Belgium).

Brunfaut, T., & McCray, G. (2015). Modelling L2 reading proficiency using eye-tracking measures. CRELLA/LU Eye tracking Research Day, Luton (UK).

Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2015). Teachers setting the assessment (literacy) agenda. European Association for Language Testing and Assessment conference (EALTA), Copenhagen (Denmark).

Brunfaut, T., & McCray, G. (2014). Looking into reading: The use of eye-tracking to investigate test-takers' cognitive processing. Featured talk, Language Testing Forum (LTF), Southampton (UK).

McCray, G., & Brunfaut, T. (2014). Modelling reading item difficulty with the Explanatory IRT model LLTM+e: Applying an L1-framework to L2-items. Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC), Amsterdam (The Netherlands).

Kremmel, B., Brunfaut, T., & Alderson, C.J. (2014). Exploring the role of phraseological knowledge in second language reading test performance (poster). Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC), Amsterdam (The Netherlands).

Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2014). Standard setting in Europe and Asia: Linking listening tests to the CEFR. European Association for Language Testing and Assessment conference (EALTA), Warwick (UK).

Alderson, J.C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2013). Towards a theory of diagnosis in second language assessment: Lessons learnt from diagnosis in other professions. Symposium presentation at the Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC), Seoul (South Korea).


Research Group:

I coordinate the Language Testing Research Group, together with my colleague Luke Harding.

Current Teaching

I am the Director of the Department's MA in Language Testing (online).

I  teach on the MA in Language Testing (online) and the MA in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching (campus-based):

  • Language Test Construction and Evaluation
  • Background to Applied Linguistics
  • Issues in Language Testing
  • Research Issues in Applied Linguistics
  • Statistical analyses for Language Testing

On the undergraduate programme, I contribute to:

  • Introduction to Linguistics

During summer, I teach on the Language Testing at Lancaster course.


Additional Information

Follow me on Twitter.

For more information, please visit my Academia or Research Gate page.

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