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    Rights statement: Copyright 2019 American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Applied Physics Letters ??, 2019 and may be found at [dx.doi.org/doi] This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics.

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Multimode probing of superfluid 4 He by tuning forks

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Forthcoming
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>17/08/2019
<mark>Journal</mark>Applied Physics Letters
Publication statusAccepted/In press
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Flexural mode vibrations of miniature piezoelectric tuning forks (TF) are known to be highly sensitive to superfluid excitations and quantum turbulence in 3He and 4He quantum fluids, as well as to the elastic properties of solid 4He, complementing studies by large scale torsional resonators. Here we explore the sensitivity of a TF, capable of simultaneously operating in both the flexural and torsional modes, to excitations in the normal and superfluid 4He. The
torsional mode is predominantly sensitive to shear forces at the sensor - fluid interface and much less sensitive to changes in the density of the surrounding fluid when compared to the flexural mode. Although we did not reach the
critical velocity for quantum turbulence onset in the torsional mode, due to its order of magnitude higher frequency and increased acoustic damping, the torsional mode was directly sensitive to fluid excitations, linked to quantum turbulence created by the flexural mode. The combination of two dissimilar modes in a single TF sensor can provide a means to study the details of elementary excitations in quantum liquids, and at interfaces between solids and quantum fluid.

Bibliographic note

Copyright 2019 American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Applied Physics Letters ??, 2019 and may be found at [dx.doi.org/doi] This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics.