12,000

We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK

93%

93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Ultrasonic force microscopy for nanometer resol...
View graph of relations

« Back

Ultrasonic force microscopy for nanometer resolution subsurface imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date10/01/1994
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Journal number2
Volume64
Number of pages3
Pages178-180
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

We present a novel method for nanometer resolution subsurface imaging. When a sample of atomic force microscope (AFM) is vertically vibrated at ultrasonic frequencies much higher than the cantilever resonance, the tip cannot vibrate but it is cyclically indented into the sample. By modulating the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration, subsurface features are imaged from the cantilever deflection vibration at the modulation frequency. By adding low-frequency lateral vibration to the ultrasonic vibration, subsurface features with different shear rigidity are imaged from the torsional vibration of cantilever. Thus controlling the direction of vibration forces, we can discriminate subsurface features of different elastic properties.