Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > 3D triangulation of Transient Luminous Events o...

Electronic data

  • AISR-D-22-00321_R3

    Accepted author manuscript, 5.28 MB, PDF document

    Embargo ends: 21/06/24

    Available under license: CC BY-NC-ND: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License


Text available via DOI:

View graph of relations

3D triangulation of Transient Luminous Events over Africa

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • D. Mashao
  • M. Kosch
  • M. Fullekrug
  • M. Ivchenko
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/08/2023
<mark>Journal</mark>Advances in Space Research
Issue number3
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)686-693
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date21/06/23
<mark>Original language</mark>English


We present the first 3D triangulation of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) over Africa. The 6 TLEs were simultaneously observed in the middle atmosphere from Sutherland and Carnarvon in South Africa, separated by 192 km, during the 2019 sprites campaign. These two distinctive locations have low radio interference and are free from light pollution. The lightning times, locations, peak current, and polarities, which initiated the observed TLEs, were obtained from the South African Lightning Detection Network and Earth Networks Total Lightning Networks. We investigate the TLEs' altitude and horizontal displacement from their parent lightning strokes. TLEs appear approximately 12.5 to 49.3 km away from their parent lightning strokes. We found that TLE altitudes range from 29 to 92.6 km. The lightning electric field and peak current may be related to the displacement of TLEs and the TLEs' horizontal spread.