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A model for the formation of ignimbrite by gravitational column collapse

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A model for the formation of ignimbrite by gravitational column collapse. / Sparks, R. S.J.; Wilson, L.

In: Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 132, No. 4, 01.08.1976, p. 441-451.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

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Sparks, RSJ & Wilson, L 1976, 'A model for the formation of ignimbrite by gravitational column collapse', Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 441-451. https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.132.4.0441

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Sparks, R. S.J. ; Wilson, L. / A model for the formation of ignimbrite by gravitational column collapse. In: Journal of the Geological Society. 1976 ; Vol. 132, No. 4. pp. 441-451.

Bibtex

@article{9d152401e86046ec824a315adb4ac44d,
title = "A model for the formation of ignimbrite by gravitational column collapse",
abstract = "Eruption columns consist of two components. The lower gas thrust component results from decompression of the gas phase, and decelerates rapidly to near zero velocity at heights of 1.5-4.5 km for initial gas velocities of 4oo-6oo m/s. The upper conzective thrust component is due to the column having a lower density than the atmosphere, and can transport the column to heights of 30-40 km. At the base, the effective density of a column is considerably greater than that of the atmosphere and is very sensitive to changes of gas content. Fall out ofclasts and incorporation and heating of air reduce the density substantially during the gas thrust part. It is shown that columns formed from magmas with high water contents (5%) are likely to show convective motion. Magmas with low water contents (1/2%) or high proportions of CO2 will form a column with an effective density greater than the atmosphere, and gravitational column collapse can occur to generate ignimbriteo forming pyroclastic flows. In magmas with intermediate gas contents, the occurrence of convection (plinian case) or collapse (ignimbrite-forming) depends on vent radius, proportion of ash and gas content. The model presented here can explain: the sharp transition from plinian to ignimbriteforming activity; the increase of temperature with time shown by some ignimbrites; the common association of low temperature ignimbrites with preceding plinian eruptions, and the apparent mobility of pyroclastic flows.",
author = "Sparks, {R. S.J.} and L. Wilson",
year = "1976",
month = aug,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1144/gsjgs.132.4.0441",
language = "English",
volume = "132",
pages = "441--451",
journal = "Journal of the Geological Society",
issn = "0016-7649",
publisher = "Geological Society of London",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A model for the formation of ignimbrite by gravitational column collapse

AU - Sparks, R. S.J.

AU - Wilson, L.

PY - 1976/8/1

Y1 - 1976/8/1

N2 - Eruption columns consist of two components. The lower gas thrust component results from decompression of the gas phase, and decelerates rapidly to near zero velocity at heights of 1.5-4.5 km for initial gas velocities of 4oo-6oo m/s. The upper conzective thrust component is due to the column having a lower density than the atmosphere, and can transport the column to heights of 30-40 km. At the base, the effective density of a column is considerably greater than that of the atmosphere and is very sensitive to changes of gas content. Fall out ofclasts and incorporation and heating of air reduce the density substantially during the gas thrust part. It is shown that columns formed from magmas with high water contents (5%) are likely to show convective motion. Magmas with low water contents (1/2%) or high proportions of CO2 will form a column with an effective density greater than the atmosphere, and gravitational column collapse can occur to generate ignimbriteo forming pyroclastic flows. In magmas with intermediate gas contents, the occurrence of convection (plinian case) or collapse (ignimbrite-forming) depends on vent radius, proportion of ash and gas content. The model presented here can explain: the sharp transition from plinian to ignimbriteforming activity; the increase of temperature with time shown by some ignimbrites; the common association of low temperature ignimbrites with preceding plinian eruptions, and the apparent mobility of pyroclastic flows.

AB - Eruption columns consist of two components. The lower gas thrust component results from decompression of the gas phase, and decelerates rapidly to near zero velocity at heights of 1.5-4.5 km for initial gas velocities of 4oo-6oo m/s. The upper conzective thrust component is due to the column having a lower density than the atmosphere, and can transport the column to heights of 30-40 km. At the base, the effective density of a column is considerably greater than that of the atmosphere and is very sensitive to changes of gas content. Fall out ofclasts and incorporation and heating of air reduce the density substantially during the gas thrust part. It is shown that columns formed from magmas with high water contents (5%) are likely to show convective motion. Magmas with low water contents (1/2%) or high proportions of CO2 will form a column with an effective density greater than the atmosphere, and gravitational column collapse can occur to generate ignimbriteo forming pyroclastic flows. In magmas with intermediate gas contents, the occurrence of convection (plinian case) or collapse (ignimbrite-forming) depends on vent radius, proportion of ash and gas content. The model presented here can explain: the sharp transition from plinian to ignimbriteforming activity; the increase of temperature with time shown by some ignimbrites; the common association of low temperature ignimbrites with preceding plinian eruptions, and the apparent mobility of pyroclastic flows.

U2 - 10.1144/gsjgs.132.4.0441

DO - 10.1144/gsjgs.132.4.0441

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:0001203953

VL - 132

SP - 441

EP - 451

JO - Journal of the Geological Society

JF - Journal of the Geological Society

SN - 0016-7649

IS - 4

ER -