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Chitosan/hydroxyapatite (HA)/hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) spongy scaffolds-synthesis and evaluation as potential alveolar bone substitutes

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  • Haffsah Iqbal
  • Moazzam Ali
  • Rabia Zeeshan
  • Zeeshan Mutahir
  • Farasat Iqbal
  • Muhammad Azhar Hayat Nawaz
  • Lubna Shahzadi
  • Aqif Anwar Chaudhry
  • Muhammad Yar
  • Shifang Luan
  • Ather Farooq Khan
  • Ihtesham-Ur Rehman
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/12/2017
<mark>Journal</mark>Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Number of pages11
Pages (from-to)553-563
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date4/10/17
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Alveolar bone loss is associated with infections and its augmentation is a pre-requisite for the success of dental implants. In present study, we aim to develop and evaluate novel freeze dried doxycycline loaded chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) spongy scaffolds where hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was added as a crosslinker. Scaffolds displayed compressive strength of 14MPa/cm3 and 0.34 as elastic response. The interconnected pore diameter was 41-273μm, favorably provided the template supporting cells and transport. An overall 10% degradation was seen after 14day's studies at pH 7.4 in PBS. Doxycycline hyclate, a frequently used drug to counter oral infections, demonstrated an initial burst release (6-8h), followed by a sustain release profile for the remaining 64h. CS/HA/HPMC scaffolds were nontoxic and promoted pre-osteoblast cell viability as seen with live/dead calcein staining after 24h where scaffolds with 10% and 25% HPMC by weight of scaffold had more viable cells. Scaffolds with 10%, 20% and 25% HPMC by weight of scaffold showed efficient cellular adhesion as seen in scanning electron microscopy images (day 8) indicating that pre-osteoblast cells were able to adhere well on the surface and into the porous structure via cytoplasmic extensions. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining at day 2 and 8 indicated cell proliferation which was further supported byMTT assay at day 2, 4 and 8. Although all scaffolds supported pre-osteoblast cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining demonstrated that upon induction, differentiation was pronounced in case of scaffolds with 10% HMPC scaffolds. Conclusively, these materials having all the required mechanical and biological properties are potential candidates for alveolar bone regeneration.