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  • Co_infection_Gowthaman_et_al_BMC_Vet_Res

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Co-infection of Newcastle disease virus genotype XIII with low pathogenic avian influenza exacerbates clinical outcome of Newcastle disease in vaccinated layer poultry flocks

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • V. Gowthaman
  • S.D. Singh
  • K. Dhama
  • M.A. Ramakrishnan
  • Y.P.S. Malik
  • T.R. Gopala Krishna Murthy
  • R. Chitra
  • M. Munir
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/09/2019
Issue number3
Number of pages12
Pages (from-to)441–452
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date1/07/19
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are economically important infectious diseases of poultry. Sometime, concomitant secondary viral/or bacterial infections significantly alters the pathobiology of ND and AI in poultry. As of now, the disease patterns and dynamics of co-infections caused by ND virus (NDV, genotype XIII) and Low Pathogenic AI viruses (LPAI, H9N2) are explicitly elusive. Thus, we examined the clinicopathological disease conditions due to these two economically important viruses to understand the complex disease outcomes by virus–virus interactions in vaccinated flocks. The findings of clinicopathological and molecular investigations carried on 37 commercial ND vaccinated poultry flocks revealed simultaneous circulation of NDV and AIV in same flock/bird. Further, molecular characterization of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes confirmed that all the identified AIVs were of low pathogenicity H9N2 subtype and fusion (F) gene analysis of detected NDVs belong to NDV class II, genotype XIII, a virulent type. The NDV and H9N2 alone or co-infected flocks (NDV + LPAI) exhibit clinical signs and lesions similar to that of virulent NDV except the degree of severity, which was higher in H9N2–NDV co-infected flocks. Additionally, avian pathogenic E. coli and mycoplasma infections were detected in majority of the ailing/dead birds from the co-infected flocks during progression of the clinical disease. Overall, the findings highlight the multi-factorial disease complexity in commercial poultry and suggest the importance of NDV genotype XIII in intensifying the clinical disease in vaccinated birds.

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The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-019-00533-6