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Contactless probing of graphene charge density variation in a controlled humidity environment

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • K. Brown
  • T. Vincent
  • E.G. Castanon
  • F.S. Rus
  • C. Melios
  • O. Kazakova
  • C.E. Giusca
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>15/08/2020
Number of pages9
Pages (from-to)408-416
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date18/03/20
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The electronic properties of graphene are highly sensitive to atoms and molecules adsorbed on its surface and to changes in its environment, such as temperature and humidity. In this paper, we examine the effect of humidity on the local carrier concentration of different types of graphene prepared by mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapour deposition and epitaxial growth on SiC, using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. We present a systematic and comparative study of the changes in Raman response using a vector analysis method to produce spatial maps of doping variation as a function of humidity. We also quantify the humidity induced carrier concentration change for different types of graphene. This study illustrates the effects of humidity on the electronic properties of graphene and provides a simple, contactless and quantitative method to directly evaluate water-induced doping effects in graphene, that are crucial for tailored device performance.