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  • 2103.12765v2

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Continuous non-equilibrium transition driven by the heat flow

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  • Yirui Zhang
  • Marek Litniewski
  • Karol Makuch
  • Pawel J. Zuk
  • Anna Maciolek
  • Robert Holyst
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Article number024102
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2/08/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Physical Review E
Issue number2
Volume104
Number of pages8
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

We discovered an out-of-equilibrium transition in the ideal gas between two walls, divided by an inner, adiabatic, movable wall. The system is driven out-of-equilibrium by supplying energy directly into the volume of the gas. At critical heat flux, we have found a continuous transition to the state with a low-density, hot gas on one side of the movable wall and a dense, cold gas on the other side. Molecular dynamic simulations of the soft-sphere fluid confirm the existence of the transition in the interacting system. We introduce a stationary state Helmholtz-like function whose minimum determines the stable positions of the internal wall. This transition can be used as a paradigm of transitions in stationary states and the Helmholtz-like function as a paradigm of the thermodynamic description of these states.

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© 2021 American Physical Society