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Publication date2002
Host publicationEncyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3rd edition
EditorsR. A. Meyers
Place of PublicationSan Diego
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages23
ISBN (Print)0-12-227410-5
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Cryogenics is the science and technology of very low temperatures. Although there is no hard and fast definition of where ordinary refrigeration gives way to cryogenics, it is customary to consider the dividing line as being at ~ 100K. Of particular scientific interest and importance are the cryogenic phenomena of superconductivity (below -20 K) and superfluidity (below -2 K), for which no known analogues exist in the everyday world at room temperature. Cryogenic techniques are now being employed in applications as diverse as medicine, rocketry, archeology, and metrology.