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Describing immune factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigen loss: A nested case-control study of a Chinese sample from Wuwei City

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Xiaojie Yuan
  • Ting Fu
  • Lixin Xiao
  • Zhen He
  • Zhaohua Ji
  • Samuel Seery
  • Wenhua Zhang
  • Yancheng Ye
  • Haowei Zhou
  • Xiangyu Kong
  • Shuyuan Zhang
  • Qi Zhou
  • Yulian Lin
  • Wenling Jia
  • Chunhui Liang
  • Haitao Tang
  • Fengmei Wang
  • Weilu Zhang
  • Zhongjun Shao
Article number1025654
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>11/10/2022
<mark>Journal</mark>Front. Immunol.
Number of pages12
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is considered a functional cure for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), however, several factors influence HBsAg loss. Methods: 29 CHB patients who had achieved HBsAg loss, were selected and 58 CHB patients with persistent HBsAg were matched, according to gender and age (+/- 3 years). Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) modelling were performed. Results: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression, based on stepwise selection, showed that baseline HBsAg levels negatively correlated with HBsAg loss (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-0.99). Interferon treatment positively related with HBsAg loss (OR = 7.99, 95%CI = 1.62-44.88). After adjusting for age, HBsAg level, ALT level, HBeAg status and interferon treatment, MMP-1 (OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.44-0.97), CXCL9 (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.93-0.99) and TNF-R1 (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.94-0.99) baseline levels all negatively correlated with HBsAg loss. Our multivariate-adjusted RCS model showed that baseline CXCL10 was associated with HBsAg loss although the relationship was “U-shaped”. Conclusions: Cytokines such as MMP-1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and TNF-R1 are important factors which influence HBsAg loss. It may be possible to develop a nomogram which intercalates these factors; however, further research should consider immune processes involved in HBsAg loss.