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Development and validation of the Kilifi Stigma Scale for Epilepsy in Kenya

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

  • Caroline K. Mbuba
  • Amina Abubakar
  • Peter Odermatt
  • Charles R. Newton
  • Julie A. Carter
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>05/2012
<mark>Journal</mark>Epilepsy and Behavior
Issue number1
Number of pages5
Pages (from-to)81-85
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to measure perceived stigma among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kilifi, Kenya. We reviewed existing scales that measured stigma, particularly of epilepsy. We conducted a qualitative study to determine salient concerns related to stigma in Kilifi. Themes were generated, and those related to stigma were used to construct an 18-item stigma scale. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was then conducted among 673 PWE to assess the reliability and validity of the scale. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability with an interclass correlation coefficient. The final scale had 15 items, which had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.91) and excellent test-retest reliability (r=0.92). Factor analysis indicated that the scale was unidimensional with one factor solution explaining 45.8% of the variance. The Kilifi Stigma Scale for Epilepsy is a culturally appropriate measure of stigma with strong psychometric properties.

Bibliographic note

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.