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Evaporating black-holes, wormholes, and vacuum polarisation: must they always conserve charge?

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/04/2019
<mark>Journal</mark>Foundations of Physics
Issue number4
Number of pages21
Pages (from-to)330-350
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Abstract A careful examination of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory shows that due to the underlying mathematical assumptions required for Stokes' Theorem, charge conservation cannot be guaranteed in topologically non-trivial spacetimes. However, in order to break the charge conservation mechanism we must also allow the electromagnetic excitation fields D, H to possess a gauge freedom, just as the electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials and A do. This has implications for the treatment of electromagnetism in spacetimes where black holes both form and then evaporate, as well as extending the possibilities for treating vacuum polarisation. Using this gauge freedom of D, H we also propose an alternative to the accepted notion that a charge passing through a wormhole necessarily leads to an additional (effective) charge on the wormhole's mouth.