Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Functional adult outcomes 16 years after childh...

Electronic data

  • 1-s2.0-S089085671631187X-main

    Rights statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 11 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.07.774

    Accepted author manuscript, 520 KB, PDF document

    Available under license: CC BY-NC-ND: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

Links

Text available via DOI:

View graph of relations

Functional adult outcomes 16 years after childhood diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: MTA results

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Published
  • MTA Cooperative Group
Close
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>11/2016
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of the Amercian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number11
Volume55
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)945-952.e2
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date2/09/16
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Objective

To compare educational, occupational, legal, emotional, substance use disorder, and sexual-behavior outcomes in young adults with persistent and desistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA).

Method

Data were collected 12, 14, and 16 years post-baseline (mean age 24.7 years at 16 years post-baseline) from 476 participants with ADHD diagnosed at age 7-9, and 241 age- and sex-matched classmates. Probands were subgrouped on persistence vs. desistence of DSM-5 symptom count. Orthogonal comparisons contrasted ADHD vs. LNCG and Symptom-Persistent (50%) vs. Symptom-Desistent (50%) subgroups. Functional outcomes were measured with standardized and demographic instruments.

Results

Three patterns of functional outcomes emerged. Post-secondary education, times fired/quit a job, current income, receiving public assistance, and risky sexual behavior showed the most common pattern: the LNCG fared best, Symptom-Persistent ADHD worst, and Symptom-Desistent ADHD between, with largest effect sizes between LNCG and Symptom-Persistent ADHD. In the second pattern, seen with emotional outcomes (emotional lability, neuroticism, anxiety disorder, mood disorder) and substance use outcomes, the LNCG and Symptom-Desistent ADHD did not differ, but both fared better than Symptom-Persistent ADHD. In the third pattern, noted with jail time (rare), alcohol use disorder (common), and number of jobs held, group differences were not significant. The ADHD group had 10 deaths compared to one in the LNCG.

Conclusion

Adult functioning after childhood ADHD varies by domain and is generally worse when ADHD symptoms persist. It is important to identify factors and interventions that promote better functional outcomes.

Bibliographic note

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 11, 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.07.774