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Gaze+Hold: Eyes-Only Direct Manipulation with Continuous Gaze Modulated by Closure of One Eye

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Abstract

The eyes are coupled in their gaze function and therefore usually treated as a single input channel, limiting the range of interactions. However, people are able to open and close one eye while still gazing with the other. We introduce Gaze+Hold as an eyes-only technique that builds on this ability to leverage the eyes as separate input channels, with one eye modulating the state of interaction while the other provides continuous input. Gaze+Hold enables direct manipulation beyond pointing which we explore through the design of Gaze+Hold techniques for a range of user interface tasks. In a user study, we evaluated performance, usability and user’s spontaneous choice of eye for modulation of input. The results show that users are effective with Gaze+Hold. The choice of dominant versus non-dominant eye had no effect on performance, perceived usability and workload. This is significant for the utility of Gaze+Hold as it affords flexibility for mapping of either eye in different configurations.