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How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation?: An integrative review

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How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation? An integrative review. / Belar, A.; Arantzamendi, M.; Payne, S.; Preston, N.; Lee-Rijpstra, M.; Hasselaar, J.; Radbruch, L.; Vanderelst, M.; Ling, J.; Centeno, C.

In: Palliative Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 2, 01.02.2021, p. 295-314.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Belar, A, Arantzamendi, M, Payne, S, Preston, N, Lee-Rijpstra, M, Hasselaar, J, Radbruch, L, Vanderelst, M, Ling, J & Centeno, C 2021, 'How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation? An integrative review', Palliative Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320974264

APA

Belar, A., Arantzamendi, M., Payne, S., Preston, N., Lee-Rijpstra, M., Hasselaar, J., Radbruch, L., Vanderelst, M., Ling, J., & Centeno, C. (2021). How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation? An integrative review. Palliative Medicine, 35(2), 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320974264

Vancouver

Belar A, Arantzamendi M, Payne S, Preston N, Lee-Rijpstra M, Hasselaar J et al. How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation? An integrative review. Palliative Medicine. 2021 Feb 1;35(2):295-314. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320974264

Author

Belar, A. ; Arantzamendi, M. ; Payne, S. ; Preston, N. ; Lee-Rijpstra, M. ; Hasselaar, J. ; Radbruch, L. ; Vanderelst, M. ; Ling, J. ; Centeno, C. / How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation? An integrative review. In: Palliative Medicine. 2021 ; Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 295-314.

Bibtex

@article{9a322776e77b4c7b9cff0789fb9188b4,
title = "How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation?: An integrative review",
abstract = "Background: Palliative sedation is the monitored use of medications intended to relieve refractory suffering. The assessment of palliative sedation has been focused on the assess of the level of consciousness but a more comprehensive approach to assessment is needed. Aim: To understand how the potential effects and possible adverse events of palliative sedation in Palliative Care patients are measured. Design: Integrative review of most recent empirical research. Data sources: Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL were searched (2010–2020) using the terms sedation, palliative care, terminal care, assessment. Limits included studies in English and adults. Inclusion criteria were: scientific assessment papers, effects and complications of palliative sedation; patients with incurable illness. Results: Out of 588 titles, 26 fulfilled inclusion criteria. The Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type and Patient Comfort Score were used to assess comfort. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and The Ramsay Sedation Scale are the most used to measure its effect. Refractory symptoms were assessed through multi-symptom or specific scales; except for psychological or existential distress. Delirium was assessed using the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and pain through the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool. The use of technical approaches to monitor effects is upcoming. There is lack of measurement of possible adverse events and variability in timing measurement. Conclusions: There are palliative care validated instruments to assess the sedation effect but this review shows the need for a more standardized approach when assessing it. Instruments should be used within an experienced and trained expert, providing a holistic assessment. ",
keywords = "deep sedation, empirical research, hospice care, palliative care, palliative medicine, patient comfort, review, sedation (as the MeSH Terms refers only to one type of sedation), symptom assessment, terminal care, terminally ill",
author = "A. Belar and M. Arantzamendi and S. Payne and N. Preston and M. Lee-Rijpstra and J. Hasselaar and L. Radbruch and M. Vanderelst and J. Ling and C. Centeno",
year = "2021",
month = feb,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0269216320974264",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "295--314",
journal = "Palliative Medicine",
issn = "0269-2163",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - How to measure the effects and potential adverse events of palliative sedation?

T2 - An integrative review

AU - Belar, A.

AU - Arantzamendi, M.

AU - Payne, S.

AU - Preston, N.

AU - Lee-Rijpstra, M.

AU - Hasselaar, J.

AU - Radbruch, L.

AU - Vanderelst, M.

AU - Ling, J.

AU - Centeno, C.

PY - 2021/2/1

Y1 - 2021/2/1

N2 - Background: Palliative sedation is the monitored use of medications intended to relieve refractory suffering. The assessment of palliative sedation has been focused on the assess of the level of consciousness but a more comprehensive approach to assessment is needed. Aim: To understand how the potential effects and possible adverse events of palliative sedation in Palliative Care patients are measured. Design: Integrative review of most recent empirical research. Data sources: Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL were searched (2010–2020) using the terms sedation, palliative care, terminal care, assessment. Limits included studies in English and adults. Inclusion criteria were: scientific assessment papers, effects and complications of palliative sedation; patients with incurable illness. Results: Out of 588 titles, 26 fulfilled inclusion criteria. The Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type and Patient Comfort Score were used to assess comfort. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and The Ramsay Sedation Scale are the most used to measure its effect. Refractory symptoms were assessed through multi-symptom or specific scales; except for psychological or existential distress. Delirium was assessed using the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and pain through the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool. The use of technical approaches to monitor effects is upcoming. There is lack of measurement of possible adverse events and variability in timing measurement. Conclusions: There are palliative care validated instruments to assess the sedation effect but this review shows the need for a more standardized approach when assessing it. Instruments should be used within an experienced and trained expert, providing a holistic assessment.

AB - Background: Palliative sedation is the monitored use of medications intended to relieve refractory suffering. The assessment of palliative sedation has been focused on the assess of the level of consciousness but a more comprehensive approach to assessment is needed. Aim: To understand how the potential effects and possible adverse events of palliative sedation in Palliative Care patients are measured. Design: Integrative review of most recent empirical research. Data sources: Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL were searched (2010–2020) using the terms sedation, palliative care, terminal care, assessment. Limits included studies in English and adults. Inclusion criteria were: scientific assessment papers, effects and complications of palliative sedation; patients with incurable illness. Results: Out of 588 titles, 26 fulfilled inclusion criteria. The Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type and Patient Comfort Score were used to assess comfort. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and The Ramsay Sedation Scale are the most used to measure its effect. Refractory symptoms were assessed through multi-symptom or specific scales; except for psychological or existential distress. Delirium was assessed using the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and pain through the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool. The use of technical approaches to monitor effects is upcoming. There is lack of measurement of possible adverse events and variability in timing measurement. Conclusions: There are palliative care validated instruments to assess the sedation effect but this review shows the need for a more standardized approach when assessing it. Instruments should be used within an experienced and trained expert, providing a holistic assessment.

KW - deep sedation

KW - empirical research

KW - hospice care

KW - palliative care

KW - palliative medicine

KW - patient comfort

KW - review

KW - sedation (as the MeSH Terms refers only to one type of sedation)

KW - symptom assessment

KW - terminal care

KW - terminally ill

U2 - 10.1177/0269216320974264

DO - 10.1177/0269216320974264

M3 - Journal article

VL - 35

SP - 295

EP - 314

JO - Palliative Medicine

JF - Palliative Medicine

SN - 0269-2163

IS - 2

ER -