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Immersive Simulated Learning Environments (ISLEs) for researching critical incidents: a knowledge synthesis of the literature and experiences of studying high risk strategic and tactical decision making

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Laurence Alison
  • Claudia van den Heuvel
  • Sara Waring
  • Nicola Power
  • Amy Long
  • Terence O'Hara
  • Jonathan Crego
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>09/2013
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making
Issue number3
Number of pages18
Pages (from-to)255-272
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date20/12/12
<mark>Original language</mark>English


This article provides an integration and synthesis of the strengths and weaknesses of utilizing simulation- based training environments for research. It provides information for researchers interested in exploring complex, dynamic, and high-stakes decision making in critical incidents.The article proposes that immersive simulated learning environments (ISLEs) are an effective naturalistic decision making tool for examining strategic and tactical multiteam decision making. Specifically, they are useful for researching environments whereby decision characteristics of anticipation, preparation, mitigation, adaptation, and coping are treated as interconnected elements. The article presents the simulation tool Hydra as an example of an ISLE by describing a worked example known as Operation Pandora. It demonstrates how the use of ISLEs can assist research on expert, high-stakes, and high-consequence critical incident decisions.