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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south: Evidence from a four-country cohort study

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south : Evidence from a four-country cohort study. / Porter, C.; Favara, M.; Hittmeyer, A.; Scott, D.; Sánchez Jiménez, A.; Ellanki, R.; Woldehanna, T.; Duc, L.T.; Craske, M.G.; Stein, A.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 11, No. 4, e049653, 30.04.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Porter, C, Favara, M, Hittmeyer, A, Scott, D, Sánchez Jiménez, A, Ellanki, R, Woldehanna, T, Duc, LT, Craske, MG & Stein, A 2021, 'Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south: Evidence from a four-country cohort study', BMJ Open, vol. 11, no. 4, e049653. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049653

APA

Porter, C., Favara, M., Hittmeyer, A., Scott, D., Sánchez Jiménez, A., Ellanki, R., Woldehanna, T., Duc, L. T., Craske, M. G., & Stein, A. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south: Evidence from a four-country cohort study. BMJ Open, 11(4), [e049653]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049653

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Author

Porter, C. ; Favara, M. ; Hittmeyer, A. ; Scott, D. ; Sánchez Jiménez, A. ; Ellanki, R. ; Woldehanna, T. ; Duc, L.T. ; Craske, M.G. ; Stein, A. / Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south : Evidence from a four-country cohort study. In: BMJ Open. 2021 ; Vol. 11, No. 4.

Bibtex

@article{2fb7085a01994edcb1c590c98993c7c9,
title = "Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south: Evidence from a four-country cohort study",
abstract = "Objective To provide evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young people who grew up in poverty in low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Design A phone survey administered between August and October 2020 to participants of a population-based longitudinal cohort study established in 2002 comprising two cohorts born in 1994-1995 and 2001-2002 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), Peru and Vietnam. We use logistic regressions to examine associations between mental health and pandemic-related stressors, structural factors (gender, age), and lifelong protective/risk factors (parent and peer relationship, wealth, long-term health problems, past emotional problems, subjective well-being) measured at younger ages. Setting A geographically diverse, poverty-focused sample, also reaching those without mobile phones or internet access. Participants 10 496 individuals were approached; 9730 participated. Overall, 8988 individuals were included in this study; 4610 (51%) men and 4378 (49%) women. Non-inclusion was due to non-location or missing data. Main outcome measures Symptoms consistent with at least mild anxiety or depression were measured by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (≥5) or Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (≥5). Results Rates of symptoms of at least mild anxiety (depression) were highest in Peru at 41% (32%) (95% CI 38.63% to 43.12%; (29.49-33.74)), and lowest in Vietnam at 9% (9%) (95% CI 8.16% to 10.58%; (8.33-10.77)), mirroring COVID-19 mortality rates. Women were most affected in all countries except Ethiopia. Pandemic-related stressors such as health risks/expenses, economic adversity, food insecurity, and educational or employment disruption were risk factors for anxiety and depression, though showed varying levels of importance across countries. Prior parent/peer relationships were protective factors, while long-term health or emotional problems were risk factors. Conclusion Pandemic-related health, economic and social stress present significant risks to the mental health of young people in LMICs where mental health support is limited, but urgently needed to prevent long-term consequences. ",
keywords = "anxiety disorders, COVID-19, depression & mood disorders",
author = "C. Porter and M. Favara and A. Hittmeyer and D. Scott and {S{\'a}nchez Jim{\'e}nez}, A. and R. Ellanki and T. Woldehanna and L.T. Duc and M.G. Craske and A. Stein",
year = "2021",
month = apr,
day = "30",
doi = "10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049653",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "BMJ Open",
issn = "2044-6055",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression symptoms of young people in the global south

T2 - Evidence from a four-country cohort study

AU - Porter, C.

AU - Favara, M.

AU - Hittmeyer, A.

AU - Scott, D.

AU - Sánchez Jiménez, A.

AU - Ellanki, R.

AU - Woldehanna, T.

AU - Duc, L.T.

AU - Craske, M.G.

AU - Stein, A.

PY - 2021/4/30

Y1 - 2021/4/30

N2 - Objective To provide evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young people who grew up in poverty in low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Design A phone survey administered between August and October 2020 to participants of a population-based longitudinal cohort study established in 2002 comprising two cohorts born in 1994-1995 and 2001-2002 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), Peru and Vietnam. We use logistic regressions to examine associations between mental health and pandemic-related stressors, structural factors (gender, age), and lifelong protective/risk factors (parent and peer relationship, wealth, long-term health problems, past emotional problems, subjective well-being) measured at younger ages. Setting A geographically diverse, poverty-focused sample, also reaching those without mobile phones or internet access. Participants 10 496 individuals were approached; 9730 participated. Overall, 8988 individuals were included in this study; 4610 (51%) men and 4378 (49%) women. Non-inclusion was due to non-location or missing data. Main outcome measures Symptoms consistent with at least mild anxiety or depression were measured by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (≥5) or Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (≥5). Results Rates of symptoms of at least mild anxiety (depression) were highest in Peru at 41% (32%) (95% CI 38.63% to 43.12%; (29.49-33.74)), and lowest in Vietnam at 9% (9%) (95% CI 8.16% to 10.58%; (8.33-10.77)), mirroring COVID-19 mortality rates. Women were most affected in all countries except Ethiopia. Pandemic-related stressors such as health risks/expenses, economic adversity, food insecurity, and educational or employment disruption were risk factors for anxiety and depression, though showed varying levels of importance across countries. Prior parent/peer relationships were protective factors, while long-term health or emotional problems were risk factors. Conclusion Pandemic-related health, economic and social stress present significant risks to the mental health of young people in LMICs where mental health support is limited, but urgently needed to prevent long-term consequences.

AB - Objective To provide evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young people who grew up in poverty in low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Design A phone survey administered between August and October 2020 to participants of a population-based longitudinal cohort study established in 2002 comprising two cohorts born in 1994-1995 and 2001-2002 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), Peru and Vietnam. We use logistic regressions to examine associations between mental health and pandemic-related stressors, structural factors (gender, age), and lifelong protective/risk factors (parent and peer relationship, wealth, long-term health problems, past emotional problems, subjective well-being) measured at younger ages. Setting A geographically diverse, poverty-focused sample, also reaching those without mobile phones or internet access. Participants 10 496 individuals were approached; 9730 participated. Overall, 8988 individuals were included in this study; 4610 (51%) men and 4378 (49%) women. Non-inclusion was due to non-location or missing data. Main outcome measures Symptoms consistent with at least mild anxiety or depression were measured by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (≥5) or Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (≥5). Results Rates of symptoms of at least mild anxiety (depression) were highest in Peru at 41% (32%) (95% CI 38.63% to 43.12%; (29.49-33.74)), and lowest in Vietnam at 9% (9%) (95% CI 8.16% to 10.58%; (8.33-10.77)), mirroring COVID-19 mortality rates. Women were most affected in all countries except Ethiopia. Pandemic-related stressors such as health risks/expenses, economic adversity, food insecurity, and educational or employment disruption were risk factors for anxiety and depression, though showed varying levels of importance across countries. Prior parent/peer relationships were protective factors, while long-term health or emotional problems were risk factors. Conclusion Pandemic-related health, economic and social stress present significant risks to the mental health of young people in LMICs where mental health support is limited, but urgently needed to prevent long-term consequences.

KW - anxiety disorders

KW - COVID-19

KW - depression & mood disorders

U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049653

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049653

M3 - Journal article

VL - 11

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 4

M1 - e049653

ER -