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Incidence and risk factors of long COVID in the UK: a single-centre observational study

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Arvind Nune
  • Victor Durkowski
  • Andrew Titman
  • Latika Gupta
  • Marin Hadzhiivanov
  • Ashar Ahmed
  • Cristina Musat
  • Hem Sapktoa
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>9/12/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Issue number4
Number of pages6
Pages (from-to)338-343
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Background Studies to evaluate long COVID symptoms and their risk factors are limited. We evaluated the presence of long COVID and its risk factors in patients discharged from a hospital with COVID-19 illness.

Methods This observational study included 271 COVID-19 patients admitted between February and July 2020 in a hospital in the UK. The primary outcome measure was to assess the duration and severity of long COVID and its predictors at 3, 6 and 9 months. Logistic regression was performed to assess the potential risk factors for long COVID.

Results Out of 89 patients interviewed, 55 (62%) had long COVID for 3 months, 46 (52%) for 6 months and 37 of the 75 patients admitted to the hospital with acute COVID-19 had long COVID for 9 months (49%). The most common long COVID symptoms were fatigue and breathlessness.

Conclusion Nearly two-thirds of patients at 3 months and a half at 9 months had long COVID. COVID-19 pneumonia was the strongest predictor of long COVID in Caucasians at 3 months.