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Language in the curriculum

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/Proceedings - With ISBN/ISSNChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

Publication date30/12/2022
Host publicationIntroducing Linguistics
EditorsJonathan Culpeper, Beth Malory, Claire Nance, Daniel Van Olmen, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Sam Kirkham, Aina Casaponsa
Place of PublicationLondon
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781003045571
ISBN (Print)9780367493011
<mark>Original language</mark>English


In many parts of the world, learners learn through a language which is not their most fluent. In some of these contexts, education is successful in that learners learn effectively both curricular contents and the language of instruction (LoI).
In others it is less successful; because learners do not have sufficient fluency in the LoI, they struggle in school and their education is often damaged. This chapter discusses these varying forms of schooling in a second language.
In this chapter, we will refer to the child’s most fluent language as their first language or L1. This language is likely to be used at home or in the community; very often, it is the language the child will also use at school. However, children who learn in a second language – or L2 – are learning in a language which may not be used in the home. It may be used in the community; but in some cases, itmay only be used at school. In these forms of what we will call L2-medium education, learners learn in a language in which they are not fluent.
The chapter will discuss both those forms of L2-medium education which succeed and those which do not, or which make schooling difficult. We will specify which features of the social and school context of these forms of education co-determine their very different outcomes (for example the educational background of parents, the level of language ability of learners). We will also suggest the kinds of pedagogy which help learners to flourish in those forms of L2-medium education which seem to work, and those which could help learners to avoid the risks of educational damage in the contexts in which it tends to occur.