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“Lessons from Rare Forms of Osteoarthritis”

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/09/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Calcified Tissue International
Number of pages12
Pages (from-to)291-302
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date21/08/21
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent conditions in the world, particularly in the developed world with a significant increase in cases and their predicted impact as we move through the twenty-first century and this will be exacerbated by the covid pandemic. The degeneration of cartilage and bone as part of this condition is becoming better understood but there are still significant challenges in painting a complete picture to recognise all aspects of the condition and what treatment(s) are most appropriate in individual causes. OA encompasses many different types and this causes some of the challenges in fully understanding the condition. There have been examples through history where much has been learnt about common disease(s) from the study of rare or extreme phenotypes, particularly where Mendelian disorders are involved. The often early onset of symptoms combined with the rapid and aggressive pathogenesis of these diseases and their predictable outcomes give an often-under-explored resource. It is these “rarer forms of disease” that William Harvey referred to that offer novel insights into more common conditions through their more extreme presentations. In the case of OA, GWAS analyses demonstrate the multiple genes that are implicated in OA in the general population. In some of these rarer forms, single defective genes are responsible. The extreme phenotypes seen in conditions such as Camptodactyly Arthropathy-Coxa Vara-pericarditis Syndrome, Chondrodysplasias and Alkaptonuria all present potential opportunities for greater understanding of disease pathogenesis, novel therapeutic interventions and diagnostic imaging. This review examines some of the rarer presenting forms of OA and linked conditions, some of the novel discoveries made whilst studying them, and findings on imaging and treatment strategies. © 2021, The Author(s).