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Local time asymmetries in Saturn’s magnetosphere

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The Cassini orbiter has observed the magnetosphere of Saturn in situ from July 2004 to the present. The spacecraft has visited nearly all local times and a large range of latitudes, including both northern and southern hemispheres, for a large fraction of a Saturn year (=29 Earth years). Local time asymmetries have been observed in the thermal plasma, the energetic particles, energetic neutral atoms, magnetic fields and aurora. Some of these are dawn-to-dusk asymmetries and have Earth-like analogies. Unlike Earth’s magnetosphere, however, Saturn’s magnetosphere is rotationally dominated, has no observable tilt relative to the spin axis, and has a major internal plasma and neutrals source in the icy moon Enceladus. These factors contribute to a number of local time asymmetries that are not dawn-to-dusk. This paper reviews Saturn’s local time asymmetries in charged particles, magnetic fields, and energetic neutral atoms, showing how some are Earth-like and some are not.