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Modifications in glass ionomer cements: Nano-sized fillers and bioactive nanoceramics

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  • S. Najeeb
  • Z. Khurshid
  • M.S. Zafar
  • A.S. Khan
  • S. Zohaib
  • J.M.N. Martí
  • S. Sauro
  • J.P. Matinlinna
  • I.U. Rehman
Article number1134
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>14/07/2016
<mark>Journal</mark>International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number7
Number of pages14
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date14/07/16
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.