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  • 2019AlOkailyPhD_Final

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Moving towards Flexible Ubiquitous Agnostic Design (FUAD) Framework from an informed view of lecturers’ practices

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

  • Rasha Al Okaily
Publication date17/12/2019
Number of pages247
Awarding Institution
Award date17/12/2019
  • Lancaster University
<mark>Original language</mark>English


This research addresses the need for change in higher education pedagogy due to developments in technology and the proliferation of digital devices. Three main directions are identified as having the potential of instigating an educational paradigm shift; flexible pedagogy (Ryan and Tilbury, 2013); ubiquitous learning (Cope and Kalantzis, 2010) and agnostic instructional design as represented in the practical set of strategies for creating device neutral assignments (DNA) (Campo, 2013). All three have been combined to formulate the Flexible Ubiquitous Agnostic Design (FUAD) framework for instructional design. The principles of the framework have been expanded and modified based on the findings of empirical data collection.
In this theory-driven evaluation research, FUAD was used to evaluate learning designs using the FUAD principles as evaluation criteria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with lecturers to discuss learning experiences from a variety of universities in different countries. The purpose of the evaluation was twofold: assessing learning designs as well as informing the FUAD framework.
Findings are presented by providing example assignments for each FUAD principle. An additional category was added for technical and procedural assignments to show how they relate to the FUAD principles. Findings show that FUAD is a useful evaluation tool. It enabled the identification of successful elements as well as the diagnosis of problem areas in learning experiences. Through the use of the seven FUAD principles and the enablers
and inhibitors of each learning experience, suggestions were presented to develop assignments and to overcome problem areas. Inhibitors are discussed collectively as pointers to possible issues that can restrict the adoption of the FUAD framework.
The FUAD framework is significant because it supports agnostic and inclusive instructional design. It translates the theoretical concepts of new pedagogies into practical principles or procedures that could be incorporated into learning experiences. It functions as a framework for instructional design and as an evaluation tool for learning experiences in higher education.

Bibliographic note

Rasha is a lecturer and a researcher, researching flexible pedagogies and ubiquitous learning in higher education. She works in various higher education institutions, mainly teaching Research Methods, Academic Writing and English as a Second Language, as well as providing professional development workshops for lecturers and school teachers. Her interests are in teacher training and researching innovative pedagogy in higher education.