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Neurological, Neuropsychiatric and Psychiatric Symptoms During COVID- 19 Infection and After Recovery: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Maria Stavrou
  • Solomis Solomou
  • Anthousa Kythreotou
  • Antreas Ioannou
  • Eva Lioutas
  • Joanna Lioutas
  • Peter Karayiannis
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>28/09/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Online Journal of Neurology and Brain Disorders
Issue number1
Number of pages15
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes a wide spectrum of disease severity. Initial manifestations include fever, dry cough, and constitutional symptoms, which may progress to respiratory disease. There may also be neurological and psychiatric manifestations, involving both the central and peripheral nervous system.

Methods: We performed a literature search of the databases PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science for observational studies reporting neurological, psychiatric, and neuropsychiatric effects of COVID-19. This was followed by a narrative synthesis to summarise the data and discuss neuropsychiatric associations, symptom severity, management, and recovery.

Findings: The most frequently reported neurological symptoms were ageusia, hyposmia/anosmia, dizziness, headache, and loss of consciousness. Statistically significant relationships were noted between Asian ethnicity and peripheral neuropathy (p=0·0001) and neuro-syndromic symptoms (p=0·001). ITU admission was found to have a statistically significant relationship with male sex (p=0·024). Depression and anxiety were also identified both during and after infection. The most frequent treatments used were intravenous immunoglobulins, followed by antibiotics, antivirals, and hydroxychloroquine; with mean treatment duration of 6 days.

Interpretation: Various neuropsychiatric symptoms have been associated with COVID-19 infection. More studies are required to further our knowledge in the management of neurological and psychiatric symptoms during and after COVID-19 infection