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- https://arxiv.org/abs/1207.2143
Submitted manuscript

Research output: Working paper

Unpublished

**On tau functions associated with linear systems.** / Blower, Gordon; Newsham, Samantha.

Research output: Working paper

Blower, G & Newsham, S 2012 'On tau functions associated with linear systems'. <https://arxiv.org/abs/1207.2143>

Blower, G., & Newsham, S. (2012). *On tau functions associated with linear systems*. https://arxiv.org/abs/1207.2143

Blower G, Newsham S. On tau functions associated with linear systems. 2012 Apr 5.

@techreport{472ccfe309464e3a9c3b4e8f7f6e0cd4,

title = "On tau functions associated with linear systems",

abstract = "\noindent {\bf Abstract} This paper considers the Fredholm determinant$\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ of a Hankel integral operator on $L^2(0, \infty )$with kernel $\phi (s+t+2x)$, where $\phi$ is a matrix scattering function. The original contribution of the paper is a related operator $R_x$ such that $\det(I-R_x)=\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ and $-dR_x/dx=AR_x+R_xA$ and an associateddifferential ring. The paper introduces two main classes of linear systems $(-A,B,C)$ for Schr\{"}odinger's equation $-\psi''+u\psi =\lambda \psi$, namely\par\indent (i) $(2,2)$-admissible linear linear systems which givescattering class potentials, with scattering function $\phi (x)=Ce^{-xA}B$;\par\indent (ii) periodic linear systems, which give periodicpotentials as in Hill's equation.\par\indent The paper introduces the state ring ${\bf S}$ for linear systems as in (i) and (ii), and the tau function is $\tau (x) =\det (I+R_x)$. \par\indent (i) A Gelfand--Levitan equation relates $\phi$ and$u(x)=-2{{d^2}\over{dx^2}}\log\det (I-R_x)$, which is solved with linear systems as in inverse scattering. Any system of rational matrix differential equations gives rise to an integrable operator $K$ as in Tracy and Widom's theory of matrix models. The Fredholm determinant $\det (I+\lambda K)$ equals $\det (I+\lambda \Gamma_\Phi\Gamma_\Psi )$, where $\Gamma_\Phi$ and $\Gamma_\Psi$ are Hankel operators with matrix symbols. The paper derives differential equations for $\tau$ in terms of the singular points of the differential equation. This paper also introduces an admissible linear system with tau function which gives a solution of Painlev\'e's equation $P_{II}$.\par\indent (ii) Consider Hill's equation with elliptic potential $u$. Then $u$ is expressed as a quotient of tau functions from periodic linear systems. If the general solution is a quotient of tau functions from periodic linear systems for all but finitely many complex eigenvalues, then $u$ is finite gap and has a hyperelliptic spectral curve. The isospectral flows ofSchr\{"}odinger's equation are given by potentials $u(t,x)$ that evolveaccording to the Korteweg de Vries equation $u_t+u_{xxx}-6uu_x=0.$Every hyperelliptic curve ${\cal E}$ gives a solution for $KdV$ whichcorresponds to rectilinear motion in the Jacobi variety of ${\cal E}$.Extending P\{"}oppe's results, the paper develops a functional calculus for linear systemsthus producing solutions of the KdV equations. If $\Gamma_x$ has finiterank, or if $A$ is invertible and $e^{-xA}$ is a uniformly continuousperiodic group, then the solutions are explicitly given in terms ofmatrices.\par",

keywords = "integrable systems , KdV, inverse scattering",

author = "Gordon Blower and Samantha Newsham",

note = "Due to be submitted for publication in refereed mathematical journal.",

year = "2012",

month = apr,

day = "5",

language = "English",

type = "WorkingPaper",

}

TY - UNPB

T1 - On tau functions associated with linear systems

AU - Blower, Gordon

AU - Newsham, Samantha

N1 - Due to be submitted for publication in refereed mathematical journal.

PY - 2012/4/5

Y1 - 2012/4/5

N2 - \noindent {\bf Abstract} This paper considers the Fredholm determinant$\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ of a Hankel integral operator on $L^2(0, \infty )$with kernel $\phi (s+t+2x)$, where $\phi$ is a matrix scattering function. The original contribution of the paper is a related operator $R_x$ such that $\det(I-R_x)=\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ and $-dR_x/dx=AR_x+R_xA$ and an associateddifferential ring. The paper introduces two main classes of linear systems $(-A,B,C)$ for Schr\"odinger's equation $-\psi''+u\psi =\lambda \psi$, namely\par\indent (i) $(2,2)$-admissible linear linear systems which givescattering class potentials, with scattering function $\phi (x)=Ce^{-xA}B$;\par\indent (ii) periodic linear systems, which give periodicpotentials as in Hill's equation.\par\indent The paper introduces the state ring ${\bf S}$ for linear systems as in (i) and (ii), and the tau function is $\tau (x) =\det (I+R_x)$. \par\indent (i) A Gelfand--Levitan equation relates $\phi$ and$u(x)=-2{{d^2}\over{dx^2}}\log\det (I-R_x)$, which is solved with linear systems as in inverse scattering. Any system of rational matrix differential equations gives rise to an integrable operator $K$ as in Tracy and Widom's theory of matrix models. The Fredholm determinant $\det (I+\lambda K)$ equals $\det (I+\lambda \Gamma_\Phi\Gamma_\Psi )$, where $\Gamma_\Phi$ and $\Gamma_\Psi$ are Hankel operators with matrix symbols. The paper derives differential equations for $\tau$ in terms of the singular points of the differential equation. This paper also introduces an admissible linear system with tau function which gives a solution of Painlev\'e's equation $P_{II}$.\par\indent (ii) Consider Hill's equation with elliptic potential $u$. Then $u$ is expressed as a quotient of tau functions from periodic linear systems. If the general solution is a quotient of tau functions from periodic linear systems for all but finitely many complex eigenvalues, then $u$ is finite gap and has a hyperelliptic spectral curve. The isospectral flows ofSchr\"odinger's equation are given by potentials $u(t,x)$ that evolveaccording to the Korteweg de Vries equation $u_t+u_{xxx}-6uu_x=0.$Every hyperelliptic curve ${\cal E}$ gives a solution for $KdV$ whichcorresponds to rectilinear motion in the Jacobi variety of ${\cal E}$.Extending P\"oppe's results, the paper develops a functional calculus for linear systemsthus producing solutions of the KdV equations. If $\Gamma_x$ has finiterank, or if $A$ is invertible and $e^{-xA}$ is a uniformly continuousperiodic group, then the solutions are explicitly given in terms ofmatrices.\par

AB - \noindent {\bf Abstract} This paper considers the Fredholm determinant$\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ of a Hankel integral operator on $L^2(0, \infty )$with kernel $\phi (s+t+2x)$, where $\phi$ is a matrix scattering function. The original contribution of the paper is a related operator $R_x$ such that $\det(I-R_x)=\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ and $-dR_x/dx=AR_x+R_xA$ and an associateddifferential ring. The paper introduces two main classes of linear systems $(-A,B,C)$ for Schr\"odinger's equation $-\psi''+u\psi =\lambda \psi$, namely\par\indent (i) $(2,2)$-admissible linear linear systems which givescattering class potentials, with scattering function $\phi (x)=Ce^{-xA}B$;\par\indent (ii) periodic linear systems, which give periodicpotentials as in Hill's equation.\par\indent The paper introduces the state ring ${\bf S}$ for linear systems as in (i) and (ii), and the tau function is $\tau (x) =\det (I+R_x)$. \par\indent (i) A Gelfand--Levitan equation relates $\phi$ and$u(x)=-2{{d^2}\over{dx^2}}\log\det (I-R_x)$, which is solved with linear systems as in inverse scattering. Any system of rational matrix differential equations gives rise to an integrable operator $K$ as in Tracy and Widom's theory of matrix models. The Fredholm determinant $\det (I+\lambda K)$ equals $\det (I+\lambda \Gamma_\Phi\Gamma_\Psi )$, where $\Gamma_\Phi$ and $\Gamma_\Psi$ are Hankel operators with matrix symbols. The paper derives differential equations for $\tau$ in terms of the singular points of the differential equation. This paper also introduces an admissible linear system with tau function which gives a solution of Painlev\'e's equation $P_{II}$.\par\indent (ii) Consider Hill's equation with elliptic potential $u$. Then $u$ is expressed as a quotient of tau functions from periodic linear systems. If the general solution is a quotient of tau functions from periodic linear systems for all but finitely many complex eigenvalues, then $u$ is finite gap and has a hyperelliptic spectral curve. The isospectral flows ofSchr\"odinger's equation are given by potentials $u(t,x)$ that evolveaccording to the Korteweg de Vries equation $u_t+u_{xxx}-6uu_x=0.$Every hyperelliptic curve ${\cal E}$ gives a solution for $KdV$ whichcorresponds to rectilinear motion in the Jacobi variety of ${\cal E}$.Extending P\"oppe's results, the paper develops a functional calculus for linear systemsthus producing solutions of the KdV equations. If $\Gamma_x$ has finiterank, or if $A$ is invertible and $e^{-xA}$ is a uniformly continuousperiodic group, then the solutions are explicitly given in terms ofmatrices.\par

KW - integrable systems

KW - KdV

KW - inverse scattering

M3 - Working paper

BT - On tau functions associated with linear systems

ER -