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Pathobiology of Avian avulavirus 1: special focus on waterfowl

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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  • Zaib Ur Rehman
  • Chunchun Meng
  • Yingjie Sun
  • Khalid M Mahrose
  • Sajid Umar
  • Chan Ding
  • Muhammad Munir
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Article number94
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>19/09/2018
<mark>Journal</mark>Veterinary Research
Issue number1
Volume49
Number of pages10
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Avian avulaviruses serotype 1 (abbreviated as APMV-1 for the historical name avian paramyxovirus 1) are capable of infecting a wide spectrum of avian species with variable clinical symptoms and outcomes. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending upon the virus strain and host species. The emergence of new virulent genotypes from global epizootics, and the year-to-year genomic changes in low and high virulence APMV-1 imply that distinct genotypes of APMV-1 are simultaneously evolving at different geographic locations across the globe. This vast genomic diversity may be favoured by large variety of avian species susceptibility to APMV-1 infection, and by the availability of highly mobile wild birds. It has long been considered that waterfowls are not sensitive to APMV-1 and are unable to show any clinical signs, however, outbreaks from the 90's contradict these concepts. The APMV-1 isolates are increasingly reported from the waterfowl. Waterfowl have strong innate immune responses, which minimize the impact of virus infection, however, are unable to prevent the viral shedding. Numerous APMV-1 are carried by domestic waterfowl intermingling with terrestrial poultry. Therefore, commercial ducks and geese should be vaccinated against APMV-1 to minimize the virus shedding and for the prevention the transmission. Genetic diversity within APMV-1 demonstrates the need for continual monitoring of viral evolution and periodic updates of vaccine seed-strains to achieve efficient control and eradication of APMV-1 in waterfowls.