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Plant photoreceptors and their signalling components in chloroplastic anterograde and retrograde communication

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

E-pub ahead of print
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/05/2022
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Experimental Botany
Publication StatusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date30/05/22
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

The Red-phytochromes and Blue-cryptochromes plant photoreceptors play essential roles in promoting genome-wide changes in nuclear and chloroplastic gene expression for photomorphogenesis, plastid development, and greening. While their importance in anterograde signalling has been long recognised, the molecular mechanisms involved remain under active investigation. More recently, the intertwining of the light-signalling cascades with the retrograde signals for the optimisation of chloroplast functions has been acknowledged. Advances in the field support the participation of phytochromes, cryptochromes and key light-modulated transcription factors, including HY5 and the PIFs, in the regulation of chloroplastic biochemical pathways that produce retrograde signals, including the tetrapyrroles and the chloroplastic MEP-isoprenoids. Interestingly, in a feedback loop, the photoreceptors and their signalling components are targets themselves of these retrograde signals, aimed at optimising photomorphogenesis to the status of the chloroplasts, with GUN proteins functioning at the convergence points. High-light and shade are also conditions where the photoreceptors tune growth responses to chloroplast functions. Interestingly, photoreceptors and retrograde signals also converge in the modulation of dual-localised proteins (chloroplastic/nuclear) including WHIRLY and HEMERA/pTAC12, whose functions are required for the optimisation of photosynthetic activities in changing environments and are proposed to act themselves as retrograde signals.