Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Polysynchronous
View graph of relations

Polysynchronous: dialogic construction of time in online learning

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Murat Oztok
  • Lesley Wilton
  • Kyungmee Lee
  • Lesley Wilton
  • Daniel Zingaro
  • Kim MacKinnon
  • Alexandra Makos
  • Kyrstle Phirangee
  • Clare Brett
  • Jim Hewitt
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>04/2014
<mark>Journal</mark>E-Learning and Digital Media
Issue number2
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)154-161
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Online learning has been conceptualized for decades as being delivered in one of two modes: synchronous or asynchronous. Technological determinism falls short in describing the role that the individuals' psychological, social and pedagogical factors play in their perception, experience and understanding of time online. This article explores the history of synchronous and asynchronous concepts and argues that an examination of students' perception of time in online contexts is required if we are to move past asynchronous-synchronous dualities toward a more nuanced understanding of how time manifests itself and affects pedagogical practices. Bakhtin's concept of the dialogic is used as a framework to explore how time in online learning has been reshaped through dialogue. A new description of time online as being polysynchronous is suggested and the illustrations provided explore the educational implications of this time shift on online discussions.