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Probing liquid 4He with quartz tuning forks using a novel multifrequency lock-in technique

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Probing liquid 4He with quartz tuning forks using a novel multifrequency lock-in technique. / Bradley, David Ian; Haley, Richard Peter; Kafanov, Sergey et al.

In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, No. 5, 09.2016, p. 1080-1091.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

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Bradley DI, Haley RP, Kafanov S, Noble T, Pickett GR, Tsepelin V et al. Probing liquid 4He with quartz tuning forks using a novel multifrequency lock-in technique. Journal of Low Temperature Physics. 2016 Sep;184(5):1080-1091. Epub 2016 Jun 15. doi: 10.1007/s10909-016-1634-5

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@article{7eedd0f5ad7c4625b042318d26d525b6,
title = "Probing liquid 4He with quartz tuning forks using a novel multifrequency lock-in technique",
abstract = "We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μm-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid 4He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μm-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μm-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid 4He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.",
keywords = "Superfluid 4He, Hydrodynamic damping , Quartz tuning fork , Multifrequency lock-in amplifier",
author = "Bradley, {David Ian} and Haley, {Richard Peter} and Sergey Kafanov and Theo Noble and Pickett, {George Richard} and Viktor Tsepelin and Jakub Vonka and Tom Wilcox",
year = "2016",
month = sep,
doi = "10.1007/s10909-016-1634-5",
language = "English",
volume = "184",
pages = "1080--1091",
journal = "Journal of Low Temperature Physics",
issn = "0022-2291",
publisher = "SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Probing liquid 4He with quartz tuning forks using a novel multifrequency lock-in technique

AU - Bradley, David Ian

AU - Haley, Richard Peter

AU - Kafanov, Sergey

AU - Noble, Theo

AU - Pickett, George Richard

AU - Tsepelin, Viktor

AU - Vonka, Jakub

AU - Wilcox, Tom

PY - 2016/9

Y1 - 2016/9

N2 - We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μm-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid 4He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μm-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μm-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid 4He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.

AB - We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μm-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid 4He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μm-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μm-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid 4He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.

KW - Superfluid 4He

KW - Hydrodynamic damping

KW - Quartz tuning fork

KW - Multifrequency lock-in amplifier

U2 - 10.1007/s10909-016-1634-5

DO - 10.1007/s10909-016-1634-5

M3 - Journal article

VL - 184

SP - 1080

EP - 1091

JO - Journal of Low Temperature Physics

JF - Journal of Low Temperature Physics

SN - 0022-2291

IS - 5

ER -