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Quantitative trait locus analysis of candidate gene alleles associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five genes: DRD4, DAT1, DRD5, SNAP-25, and 5HT1B

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  • Jonathan Mill
  • Xiaohui Xu
  • Angelica Ronald
  • Sarah Curran
  • Tom Price
  • Jo Knight
  • Ian Craig
  • Pak Sham
  • Robert Plomin
  • Philip Asherson
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>5/02/2005
<mark>Journal</mark>American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Issue number1
Number of pages6
Pages (from-to)68-73
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date2/12/04
<mark>Original language</mark>English


It has been widely postulated that the categorical diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be seen as the extreme end of a set of traits quantitatively distributed in the general population. A consequence of this is that the genes associated with DSM-IV ADHD should also influence these underlying traits in non-affected individuals. The aim of this study was to examine if specific candidate loci previously shown to be associated with DSM-IV ADHD, also act as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ADHD-symptoms in the general population. We have genotyped five candidate markers in a population-based sample of male dizygous twin-pairs (n = 329 pairs). We found little evidence to support a role for the previously-nominated alleles of a DRD4 VNTR, a 5HT1B SNP, or a microsatellite marker near to DRD5, in the distribution of ADHD-symptoms scores; however, we found some evidence to suggest that the DAT1 3'UTR VNTR and weak evidence that a microsatellite in SNAP-25 may have a role in continuous measures of ADHD-symptoms hyperactivity above and beyond their role in clinical ADHD.

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(c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.